uncomplicate.neanderthal.core
Contains core typeagnostic linear algebraic functions roughly corresponding to functionality defined in BLAS 123, and functions to create and work with various kinds of vectors and matrices. Typically, you would want to require this namespace regardless of the actual type (real, complex, CPU, GPU, pure Java etc.) of the vectors and matrices that you use.
In cases when you need to repeatedly call a function from this namespace that accesses individual entries, and the entries are primitive, it is better to use a primitive version of the function from uncomplicate.neanderthal.real namespace. Constructor functions for different specialized types (native, GPU, pure java) are in respective specialized namespaces (uncomplicate.neanderthal.native, uncomplicate.neanderthal.opencl, etc).
Please take care to only use vectors and matrices of the same type in one call of a linear algebra operation. Compute operations typically (and on purpose!) do not support arguments of mixed types. For example, you can not call the dot function with one double vector (dv) and one float vector (fv), or for one vector in the CPU memory and one in the GPU memory. If you try to do bthat, an exinfo
is thrown. You can use those different types sidebyside and transfer data between them though.
How to use
(ns test
(:require [uncomplicate.neanderthal core native]))
(ns test
(:require [uncomplicate.neanderthal core native opencl]))
Examples
The best and most accurate examples can be found in the comprehensive test suite: see here, here, and here. Also, there are tutorial test examples here, the tutorials at the Neanderthal web site, and my blog dragan.rocks.
Cheat Sheet
Naming conventions for BLAS routines.

Create: vctr, view, viewvctr, ge, viewge, tr, viewtr, sy, viewsy, gb, tb, sb, tp, sp, gd, gt, dt, st, raw, zero.

Move data around: transfer!, transfer, native, copy!, copy, swp!.

Clean up!:
withrelease
,letrelease
, andrelease
from theuncomplicate.commons.core
namespace. 
Meta: vspace?, matrix?, symmetric?, triangular?, matrixtype?, compatible?

Matrix: matrix?, ge, viewge, tr, viewtr, sy, viewsy, gb, tb, sb, tp, sp, gd, gt, dt, st, mrows, ncols, row, col, dia, cols, rows, submatrix, trans, trans!, entry, entry!, alter!, dim, dia, dias, subband.

Help: info

Monadic functions:
fmap!
,fmap
,fold
,foldmap
,pure
,op
,id
, from theuncomplicate.fluokitten.core
namespace. 
Compute level 1: dot, nrm1, nrm2, nrmi, asum, iamax, iamin, amax, iamin, imax, imin, swp!, copy!, copy, scal!, scal, rot!, rotg!, rotm!, rotmg!, axpy!, axpy, ax, xpy, axpby!, sum.

Compute level 2: mv!, mv, rk!, rk.

Compute level 3: mm!, mm, mmt.
alter!
(alter! x f)
(alter! x i f)
(alter! a i j f)
Alters the i
th entry of vector x
, or (i, j)
th entry of matrix a
by evaluating function f on one or all of its elements.
If no index is passed, the function f will alter all elements and feeds the indices to f. If the structure holds primitive elements, the function f must accept appropriate primitive unboxed arguments, and it will work faster if it also returns unboxed result.
If i
or j
is not within the dimensions of the object, throws ExceptionInfo.
(alter! (dv 1 2 3) 2 (fn ^double [^double x] (inc x)))
(alter! (dge 2 2) (fn ^double [^long i ^long j ^double x] (double (+ i j))))
amax
(amax x)
Absolute value of the first entry of vector x
that has the largest absolute value.
See related info about cblas_i?amax.
(amax (dv 1 3 2)) => 3
asum
(asum x)
Sums absolute values of entries of vector or matrix x
’’.
See related info about cblas_?asum.
(asum (dv 1 2 3)) => 6.0
ax
(ax alpha x)
axpby!
(axpby! alpha x beta y)
(axpby! x beta y)
(axpby! x y)
(axpby! alpha x beta y & zs)
Multiplies elements of a vector or matrix x
by scalar alpha
and adds it to vector or matrix y
, that was previously scaled by scalar beta
.
The contents of y
will be changed.
If called with 2 arguments, x
and y
, adds vector or matrix x
to a vector or matrix y
. If called with more than 4 arguments, at least every other have to be a vector or matrix. A scalar multiplier may be included before each object.
If the context or dimensions of x
and y
are not compatible, throws ExceptionInfo.
See related info about cblas_?axpby.
(axpy! 3 x 0.9 y)
(axpy! x y)
(axpy! 3 x 0.2 y 4 z 0.4 v)
axpy
(axpy x y)
(axpy x y z)
(axpy x y z w & ws)
A pure variant of axpy! that does not change any of the arguments. The result is a new instance.
axpy!
(axpy! alpha x y)
(axpy! x y)
(axpy! alpha x y & zs)
Multiplies elements of a vector or matrix x
by scalar alpha
and adds it to a vector or matrix y
.
The contents of y
will be changed.
If called with 2 arguments, x
and y
, adds vector or matrix x
to a vector or matrix y
. If called with more than 3 arguments, at least every other have to be a vector or matrix. A scalar multiplier may be included before each object.
If the context or dimensions of x
and y
are not compatible, throws ExceptionInfo.
See related info about cblas_?axpy.
(axpy! 3 x y)
(axpy! x y)
(axpy! 3 x y 4 z 0.4 v)
col
(col a j)
Returns the j
th column of the matrix a
as a vector.
The vector has access to and can change the same data as the original matrix.
If the requested column is not within the dimensions of a
, throws ExceptionInfo.
cols
(cols a)
Returns a lazy sequence of column vectors of the matrix a
.
The vectors has access to and can change the same data as the original matrix.
compatible?
(compatible? x y)
Checks whether x and y are compatible in the sense that they use compatible data formats (float, double, half) and computation contexts (native host memory, CUDA contexts etc.).
copy
(copy x)
(copy x offset length)
Copies all entries of a vector or a matrix x
to the newly created structure (see copy!).
copy!
(copy! x y)
(copy! x y offsetx length offsety)
Copies all entries of a vector or a matrix x
to the compatible structure y
.
Only y
will be changed.
If the context or dimensions of x
and y
are not compatible, throws ExceptionInfo.
See related info about cblas_?copy.
dia
(dia a)
(dia a k)
Returns the diagonal elements of the matrix a
in a vector. If called with an index k
, returns a lower (< k 0)
or upper (< 0 k)
diagonal.
The vector has access to and can change the same data as the original matrix.
dias
(dias a)
Returns a lazy sequence of diagonal vectors of the matrix a
.
The vectors has access to and can change the same data as the original matrix.
dot
(dot x y)
Computes the dot product of vectors or matrices x
and y
.
If the context or dimensions of x
and y
are not compatible, throws ExceptionInfo.
See related info about cblas_?dot.
(dot (dv 1 2 3) (dv 1 2 3)) => 14.0
dt
(dt factory n source options)
(dt factory n arg)
(dt factory arg)
Creates a diagonally dominant tridiagonal matrix (DT) in the context of factory
, with n
rows and columns.
If the provided side is negative, throws ExceptionInfo.
entry
(entry x i)
(entry a i j)
Returns the boxed i
th entry of vector x
, or (i, j)
th entry of matrix a
.
For optimally accessing the elements of native objects use the equivalent entry
function from uncomplicate.neanderthal.real
namespace.
If i
or j
is not within the dimensions of the object, throws ExceptionInfo.
entry!
(entry! x val)
(entry! x i val)
(entry! a i j val)
Sets the i
th entry of vector x
, or (i, j)
th entry of matrix a
using a boxed method.
For optimally accessing the elements of native objects use the equivalent entry!
function from uncomplicate.neanderthal.real
namespace.
If i
or j
is not within the dimensions of the object, throws ExceptionInfo.
gb
(gb factory m n kl ku source options)
(gb factory m n kl ku arg)
(gb factory m n arg)
(gb factory m n kl ku)
(gb factory m n)
(gb factory a)
Creates a general banded matrix (GB) in the context of factory
, with m
rows, n
columns, kl
sub (lower) diagonals and ku
super (upper) diagonals.
If source
is provided, transfers the data to the result. source
is typically a sequence, a matrix, or another structure that can be transferred to the context of factory
. If source
is a matrix, dimensions m
, n
, kl
, and ku
are not mandatory.
The internal structure can be specified with a map of options: :layout
(:column
or :row
).
If the provided indices or source do not make sense, throws ExceptionInfo.
(gb floatfactory 4 3 1 2 (range 20) {:layout :row})
gd
(gd factory n source options)
(gd factory n arg)
(gd factory arg)
Creates a diagonal matrix (GD) in the context of factory
, with n
rows and columns.
If the provided side is negative, throws ExceptionInfo.
ge
(ge factory m n source options)
(ge factory m n arg)
(ge factory m n)
(ge factory a)
Creates a dense matrix (GE) in the context of factory
, with m
rows and n
columns.
If source
is provided, transfers the data to the result. source
is typically a sequence, a matrix, or another structure that can be transferred to the context of factory
. If source
is a matrix, dimensions m
and n
are not mandatory.
The internal structure can be specified with a map of options: :layout
(:column
or :row
).
If the provided indices or source do not make sense, throws ExceptionInfo.
(ge floatfactory 2 3)
(ge openclfactory 2 3 (range 6))
(ge openclfactory (ge doublefactory 2 3 (range 6)))
(ge floatfactory [[1 2 3] [4 5] [] [6 7 8 9]])
gt
(gt factory n source options)
(gt factory n arg)
(gt factory arg)
Creates a tridiagonal matrix (GT) in the context of factory
, with n
rows and columns.
If the provided side is negative, throws ExceptionInfo.
iamax
(iamax x)
The index of the first entry of vector x
that has the largest absolute value.
See related info about cblas_i?amax.
(iamax (dv 1 3 2)) => 1
iamin
(iamin x)
The index of the first entry of vector x
that has the smallest absolute value.
See related info about cblas_i?amin.
(iamin (dv 1 3 2)) => 0
imax
(imax x)
The index of the first entry of vector x
that has the largest value.
See related info about cblas_i?amax.
(imax (dv 1 3 2)) => 2
imin
(imin x)
The index of the first entry of vector x
that has the smallest value.
See related info about cblas_i?amin.
(imin (dv 1 3 2)) => 2
matrixtype
(matrixtype a)
Returns the type of the matrix implementation represented by keyword (:ge, :tr, :sy, etc.).
mm
(mm a b c & ds)
(mm a b)
Pure matrix multiplication that returns the resulting matrix in a new instance. Computes alpha a * b
, if alpha is scalar, or alpha * a * b * c * ... * ds
if alpha
is a vector. Does matrix composition by optimally multiplying the chain of matrices.
If any consecutive pair’s dimensions do not fit for matrix multiplication, throws ExceptionInfo
.
mm!
(mm! alpha a b beta c)
(mm! alpha a b c)
(mm! alpha a b)
(mm! a b)
Matrixmatrix multiplication. Multiplies matrix a
, scaled by scalar alpha
, by matrix b
, and adds it to matrix c
previously scaled by scalar beta
.
If called with only 2 matrices, a
and b
, multiplies matrix a
by a matrix b
, and puts the result in the one that is a GE matrix. In this case, exactly one of a
or b
has to be, and one not be a GE matrix, but TR, or a matrix type that supports inplace multiplication. Scaling factors alpha
and/or beta
may be left out.
The contents of the destination matrix will be changed.
If the context or dimensions of a
, b
and c
are not compatible, throws ExceptionInfo.
See related info about cblas_?gemm, and cblas_?trmm.
(def a (dge 2 3 (range 6)))
(def b (dge 3 2 (range 2 8)))
(def c (dge 2 2 [1 1 1 1]))
(def e (dtr 3 (range 6)))
(mm! 1.5 a b 2.5 c)
(mm! 2.3 a e)
(mm! e a)
mmt
(mmt alpha a)
(mmt a)
Pure variant of mmt, multiplies matrix a
by its transpose and return the scaled result in a new instance of SY matrix c
.
If alpha
is not provided, the scaling factor is 1.0
.
mmt!
(mmt! alpha a beta c)
(mmt! alpha a c)
(mmt! a c)
Multiplies matrix a
by its transpose, scales the result by alpha
, and adds it to a symmetric matrix c
scaled by beta
.
If alpha
and/or beta
are not provided, scales by 1.0
.
mv
(mv alpha a x beta y)
(mv alpha a x y)
(mv alpha a x)
(mv a x)
Matrixvector multiplication. A pure version of mv! that returns the result in a new vector instance. Computes alpha * a * x.
mv!
(mv! alpha a x beta y)
(mv! alpha a x y)
(mv! a x y)
(mv! a x)
Matrixvector multiplication. Multiplies matrix a
, scaled by scalar alpha
, by vector x
, and adds it to vector y
previously scaled by scalar beta
.
If called with 2 arguments, a
and x
, multiplies matrix a
by a vector x
, and puts the result in the vector x
. Scaling factors alpha
and/or beta
may be left out.
The contents of the destination vector will be changed.
If the context or dimensions of a
, x
and y
are not compatible, throws ExceptionInfo.
See related info about cblas_?gemv, and cblas_?trmv.
(mv! 3 a x y)
(mv! a x y)
(mv! a x)
native
(native x)
Ensures that x
is in the native main memory, and if not, transfers it there.
(let [v (fv [1 2 3])] (identical? (native v) v)) => true
native!
(native! x)
Ensures that x
is in the native main memory, and if not, transfers it there and releases x
.
nrm2
(nrm2 x)
Computes the Euclidan norm of vector x
, or Frobenius norm of matrix x
.
See related info about cblas_?nrm2.
(nrm2 (dv 1 2 3)) => 3.7416573867739413
raw
(raw x)
(raw factory x)
Returns an uninitialized instance of the same type and dimension(s) as x
.
rk
(rk alpha x y a)
(rk alpha x y)
(rk alphaorx y)
(rk x)
Pure outer product of two vectors. A pure version of rk! that returns the result in a new matrix instance.
rk!
(rk! alpha x y a)
(rk! alphaorx y a)
(rk! y a)
The outer product of two vectors. Multiplies vector x
with transposed vector y
, scales the resulting matrix by scalar alpha
, and adds it to the matrix a
.
The contents of a
will be changed.
If the context or dimensions of a
, x
and y
are not compatible, throws ExceptionInfo.
If y
is not provided, uses x
in its place, and computes a symmetric outer product.
See related info about cblas_?ger.
(rk! 1.5 (dv 1 2 3) (dv 4 5) a)
rot!
(rot! x y c s)
(rot! x y c)
Rotates points of vectors x
and y
in the plane by cos c
and sin s
.
If the context or dimensions of x
and y
are not compatible, throws ExceptionInfo.
See related info about cblas_?rot.
rotg!
(rotg! abcs)
Computes the parameters for a givens rotation and puts them as entries of a 4element vector abcs
, that can be used as parameters in rot!
.
If abcs
does not have at least 4 entries, throws ExceptionInfo.
See related info about cblas_?rotg.
rotm!
(rotm! x y param)
Rotates points of vectors x
and y
in the plane using Givens rotation.
param
must be a vector of at least 4 entries.
See related info about cblas_?rotm.
rotmg!
(rotmg! d1d2xy param)
BLAS 1: Generate modified plane rotation.
If the context or dimensions of d1d2xy
and param
are not compatible, or d1d2xy
does not have at least at least 4 entries, or param
does not have at least 5 entries, throws ExceptionInfo.
See related info about cblas_?rotmg.
row
(row a i)
Returns the i
th row of the matrix a
as a vector.
The vector has access to and can change the same data as the original matrix.
If the requested column is not within the dimensions of a
, throws ExceptionInfo.
rows
(rows a)
Returns a lazy sequence of row vectors of the matrix a
.
The vectors has access to and can change the same data as the original matrix.
sb
(sb factory n k source options)
(sb factory n source arg)
(sb factory n arg)
(sb factory source)
Creates a symmetric banded matrix (SB) in the context of factory
, with n
rows and columns, k
sub (lower) and ‘k’ super (upper) diagonals.
If source
is provided, transfers the data to the result. source
is typically a sequence, a matrix, or another structure that can be transferred to the context of factory
. If source
is a matrix, dimensions n
and k
are not mandatory.
The internal structure can be specified with a map of options: :layout
(:column
or :row
), and :uplo
(:upper
or :lower
).
If the provided indices or source do not make sense, throws ExceptionInfo.
(sb floatfactory 4 2 (range 20) {:layout :row})
scal
(scal alpha x)
Multiplies all entries of a copy a vector or matrix x
by scalar alpha
.
See related info about cblas_?scal.
scal!
(scal! alpha x)
Multiplies all entries of a vector or matrix x
by scalar alpha
.
After scal!
, x
will be changed.
See related info about cblas_?scal.
sp
(sp factory n source options)
(sp factory n arg)
(sp factory arg)
Creates a symmetric packed matrix (SP) in the context of factory
, with n
rows and columns.
If source
is provided, transfers the data to the result. source
is typically a sequence, a matrix, or another structure that can be transferred to the context of factory
. If source
is a matrix, dimension n
is not mandatory.
The internal structure can be specified with a map of options: :layout
(:column
or :row
), and :uplo
(:upper
or :lower
).
If the provided indices or source do not make sense, throws ExceptionInfo.
(sp floatfactory 4 2 (range 20) {:uplo :upper})
st
(st factory n source options)
(st factory n arg)
(st factory arg)
Creates a symmetric tridiagonal matrix (ST) in the context of factory
, with n
rows and columns.
If the provided side is negative, throws ExceptionInfo.
subband
(subband a kl ku)
Returns a part of the banded matrix a
starting from row 0
, column 0
, that has kl
subdiagonals and ku
superdiagonals.
The resulting submatrix has a live connection to a
’s data. Any change to the subband data will affect the original data.
If the requested region is not within the dimensions of a
, throws ExceptionInfo.
submatrix
(submatrix a i j k l)
(submatrix a k l)
Returns a submatrix of the matrix a
starting from row i
, column j
, that has k
rows and l
columns.
The resulting submatrix has a live connection to a
’s data. Any change to the subvector data will affect the original data. If you wish to disconnect the submatrix from the parent matrix, make a copy prior to any destructive operation.
If the requested region is not within the dimensions of a
, throws ExceptionInfo.
(submatrix (ge doublefactroy 4 3 (range 12)) 1 1 2 1)
subvector
(subvector x k l)
Returns a subvector starting witk k
, l
entries long, which is a part of the neanderthal vector x
.
The resulting subvector has a live connection to x
’s data. Any change to the subvector data will affect the vector data. If you wish to disconnect the subvector from the parent vector, make a copy prior to any destructive operation.
If the requested region is not within the dimensions of x
, throws ExceptionInfo.
swp!
(swp! x y)
Swaps all entries of vectors or matrices x
and y
.
Both x
and y
will be changed.
If the context or dimensions of x
and y
are not compatible, throws ExceptionInfo.
See related info about cblas_?swap.
sy
(sy factory n source options)
(sy factory n arg)
(sy factory source)
Creates a dense symmetric matrix (SY) in the context of factory
, with n
rows and n
columns.
If source
is provided, transfers the data to the result. source
is typically a sequence, a matrix, or another structure that can be transferred to the context of factory
. If source
is a matrix, dimension n
is not mandatory
The internal structure can be specified with a map of options: :layout
(:column
or :row
), and :uplo
(:upper
or :lower
).
If the provided indices or source do not make sense, throws ExceptionInfo.
(sy floatfactory 2)
(sy openclfactory 3 (range 6))
(sy openclfactory (ge doublefactory 2 3 (range 6)))
tb
(tb factory n k source options)
(tb factory n source arg)
(tb factory n arg)
(tb factory source)
Creates a triangular banded matrix (TB) in the context of factory
, with n
rows and columns, k
sub (lower) or super (upper) diagonals.
If source
is provided, transfers the data to the result. source
is typically a sequence, a matrix, or another structure that can be transferred to the context of factory
. If source
is a matrix, dimensions n
and k
are not mandatory.
The internal structure can be specified with a map of options: :layout
(:column
or :row
), :uplo
(:upper
or :lower
), and :diag
(:unit
or :nonunit
).
If the provided indices or source do not make sense, throws ExceptionInfo.
(tb floatfactory 4 2 (range 20) {:layout :row})
tp
(tp factory n source options)
(tp factory n arg)
(tp factory source)
Creates a triangular packed matrix (TP) in the context of factory
, with n
rows and columns.
If source
is provided, transfers the data to the result. source
is typically a sequence, a matrix, or another structure that can be transferred to the context of factory
. If source
is a matrix, dimension n
is not mandatory.
The internal structure can be specified with a map of options: :layout
(:column
or :row
), :uplo
(:upper
or :lower
), and :diag
(:unit
or :nonunit
).
If the provided indices or source do not make sense, throws ExceptionInfo.
(tp floatfactory 4 2 (range 20) {:uplo :upper :diag :unit})
tr
(tr factory n source options)
(tr factory n arg)
(tr factory source)
Creates a dense triangular matrix (TR) in the context of factory
, with n
rows and n
columns.
If source
is provided, transfers the data to the result. source
is typically a sequence, a matrix, or another structure that can be transferred to the context of factory
. If source
is a matrix, dimension n
is not mandatory.
The internal structure can be specified with a map of options: :layout
(:column
or :row
), :uplo
(:upper
or :lower
), and :diag
(:unit
or :nonunit
).
If the provided indices or source do not make sense, throws ExceptionInfo.
(tr floatfactory 2)
(tr openclfactory 3 (range 6))
(tr openclfactory (ge doublefactory 2 3 (range 6)))
trans
(trans a)
Transposes matrix a
, i.e returns a matrix that has m’s columns as rows.
The transpose does not affect the internal structure of a
. The resulting matrix has a live connection to a
’s data.
trans!
(trans! a)
Transposes matrix a
’s data inplace. For the ‘real’ transpose, use the trans
function.
The transpose affects the internal structure of a
.
(trans! (dge 2 3 [1 2, 3 4, 5 6])) => (dge 2 3 [1 3, 5 2, 4 ,6])
transfer
(transfer factory x)
(transfer x)
Transfers the data to the memory context defined by factory
(native, OpenCL, CUDA, etc.).
If factory
is not provided, moves the data to the main host memory. If x
is already in the main memory, makes a fresh copy.
(transfer (fv [1 2 3]) openclfactory)
(transfer (sge 2 3 (range 6)) openclfactory)
(transfer (fv [1 2 3]))
transfer!
multimethod
Transfers the data from source to destination regardless of the structure type or memory context.
Typically you would use it when you want to move data between the host memory and external device memory, or between incompatible data types. If you want to simply move data from one object to another in the same memory context, you should prefer copy!. If possible, the data will simply be copied, but with multimethod call overhead.
(transfer! (fv 1 2 3) devicevctr)
(transfer! devicevctr (fv 3))
vctr
(vctr factory source)
(vctr factory x & xs)
Creates a dense vector in the context of factory
, from the provided source
.
If source
is an integer, creates a vector of zeroes. If source
is a number, puts it in the resulting vector. Otherwise, transfers the data from source
(a sequence, vector, etc.) to the resulting vector.
If the provided source do not make sense, throws ExceptionInfo.
(vctr doublefactory 3)
(vctr floatfactory 1 2 3)
(vctr openclfactory [1 2 3])
(vctr openclfactory (vctr floatfactory [1 2 3]))
viewge
(viewge a)
(viewge a stridemult)
(viewge a m n)
Attach a GE matrix to the raw data of a
, with optional dimensions and/or stride multiplier.
Changes to the resulting object affect the source a
, even the parts of data that might not be accessible by a. Use with caution!
viewge might return the master object itself, or create a new instance that reuses the master’s data.
(viewge (tr floatfactory 3 (range 6)))
viewsy
(viewsy a)
(viewsy a options)
Attach a symmetric matrix to the raw data of a
.
Changes to the resulting object affect the source a
, even the parts of data that might not be accessible by a. Use with caution!
Options: :uplo
(upper
or :lower
)..
viewsy creates a new instance that reuses the master’s data.
(viewsy (tr floatfactory 3 (range 6)))
viewtr
(viewtr a)
(viewtr a options)
Attach a triangular matrix to the raw data of a
.
Changes to the resulting object affect the source a
, even the parts of data that might not be accessible by a. Use with caution!
Options: :uplo
(upper
or :lower
), and :diag
(:unit
or :nonunit
).
viewtr creates a new instance that reuses the master’s data.
(viewtr (ge floatfactory 3 2 (range 6)))
viewvctr
(viewvctr a)
(viewvctr a stridemult)
Attach a dense vector to the raw data of x
, with optional stride multiplier stridemult
.
Changes to the resulting object affect the source x
, even the parts of data that might not be accessible by x
. Use with caution!
viewvctr might return the master object itself, or create a new instance that reuses the master’s data.
(viewvctr (ge floatfactory 2 3 (range 6)))
xpy
(xpy x y)
(xpy x y & zs)
zero
(zero x)
(zero factory x)
Returns an instance of the same type and dimension(s) as the x
, initialized with 0
.