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Featured "Divining America" Essay:
Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association
by David Van Leeuwen

Links to Online Resources

The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers Project (UCLA)
The most scholarly Web site on Garvey--and the most accessible and reliable. Includes 37 documents from the twelve-volume UCLA series of the Garvey/UNIA papers, a Garvey biography and fact sheet, 24 photographs, two audio clips of Garvey's speeches, and a bibliography of secondary works. From the James S. Coleman African Studies Center of the University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA).

The online documents include:
  • Garvey's autobiographical article, "The Negro's Greatest Enemy," Current History, September 1923
  • Garvey's reports in The Negro World on the UNIA conventions, 1920, 1924
  • The UNIA petition to President Calvin Coolidge, 1924
  • FBI agents' reports on "Negro Radical Activities in New York City," 1919, 1920.

The Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League
The official site of the current embodiment of Garvey's vision, for which the FAQ page provides the best introduction. Includes documents, press releases, a review of Garveyism, and general association information.

The online documents include:
  • The Declaration of Rights of the Negro Peoples of the World, 1920
  • Garvey's "Message to the Negroes of the World from Atlanta Prison" (the "Whirlwind Message"), 1925
  • The UNIA pledge of allegiance, "This Flag of Mine," to the red, green, and black flag adopted in 1920.

Harlem: 1920-1940--An African American Community
- Marcus Mosiah Garvey
- A UNIA Parade
- A Silent Protest

Three sections from the online exhibition Harlem: 1920-1940--An African American Community from the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture of the New York Public Library. The exhibition is supplemented with a timeline, searchable database, bibliography, weblinks, and a teacher resource page on the use of photography and oral history in historical research.

"The American Antecedents of Marcus Garvey"

An analysis of the factors that created "the atmosphere into which a Marcus Garvey could emerge" by the historian John Henrik Clarke, who fostered African-American studies at Hunter College and Cornell University. From the John Henrik Clarke Virtual Museum on the Web site of the National Black United Front.

"Marcus Garvey, Father Divine and the Gender Politics of Race Difference and Race Neutrality"
A reconsideration of Garvey's rejection of Father Divine's movement, by Dr. Baryl Satter, assistant professor of history at Rutgers University, published in American Quarterly 48.1 (1996).

Religious Movements Homepage at the University of Virginia
- Rastafarians
- The Universal Peace Mission Movement of Father Divine

Carefully researched overviews of these two religious movements related to Garveyism. Two of the many profiles on this excellent site by Dr. Jeffrey K. Hadden, professor of sociology at the University of Virginia, and students in his course on the sociology of religion.

George Alexander McGuire and the African Orthodox Church
A biography of Rev. George Alexander McGuire, who left the UNIA to found the black-nationalist African Orthodox Church. From the description of the church's records at Emory University.

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