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Toolbox Library, primary resources thematically organized with notes and discussion questionsOnline Seminars, professional development seminars for history and literature teachersThe Gilded and the Gritty: America, 1870-1912
The Gilded and the Gritty: America, 1870-1912
Topic: MemoryTopic: ProgressTopic: PeopleTopic: PowerTopic: Empire
Topic: Progress: The Meaning of the Machine
Toolbox Overview: The Gilded and the Gritty: America, 1870-1912
Resource Menu: Progress
Text 1. Memory and Machines
•  Reading Guide
» Link

Text 2. Brooklyn Bridge
Text 3. Human Machines
Text 4. Christine Frederick
Text 5. Thomas Eakins
Text 6. Thomas Edison
Text 7. Wealth and Weightlessness
Text 8. Southern Statis
Text 9. The 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago

RESOURCE MENU Reading Guide » Link

Link Page
1.  Memory and Machines
- Walt Whitman, "Song of the Exposition," poem, 1881 (PDF)
- Machinery Hall, The Philadelphia Centennial Exposition, 1876 (online exhibition)

    Machinery Hall
Machinery Hall

Whitman poem: 8 pages

Machinery Hall: 2 pages (overview). Click photographs for more information and enlarged images. (Tour other buildings from the menu "Tour Centennial Sites" menu at page bottom.)

Online Sources "Song of the Exposition": National Humanities Center

Online exhibition: Free Library of Philadelphia


Walt Whitman, biography from The Academy of American Poets

Walt Whitman, biography from Today in History, Library of Congress

Walt Whitman, online resources from American Authors (Gonzaga University)

Leaves of Grass, full text from

1876 Centennial Exposition, links to online resources, from Digital History

The Illustrated History of the Centennial Exhibition, 1876, by James D. McCabe, from The Making of America (Univ. of Michigan)
   Images only, from A Digital Archive of American
   Architecture (Boston College)

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Toolbox: The Gilded and the Gritty: America, 1870-1912
Memory | Progress | People | Power | Empire

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Toolbox Library: Primary Resources in U.S. History and Literature
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Revised: May 2005