NHC Home TeacherServe Divining America 19th Century Essay:

The Foreign Missionary Movement in the 19th and early 20th Centuries
by Daniel H. Bays
History Dept. and Asian Studies Program, Calvin College
Professor Emeritus, Dept. of History, The University of Kansas
©National Humanities Center


Illustration Credits

Links to repositories provided in the initial listing for each.
Description
Repository/ID Information
SLIDESHOW 1 - p. 1 (6 images)
Kenya, ca. 1907. Chapel at mission station of the African Inland Mission in Kenya, photograph, ca. 1907. From the Archives: "[Title:] 'Brick chapel at Kijabe.' This is perhaps a mistake. The photos might be of the chapel at Kinyona, one of the mission stations of the AIM in Kenya which was founded in 1907. From left to right: Slengo, Maruiki, Laura Collins, Ndere, Cilra (?)"
Billy Graham Center Archives, Wheaton College, No. I.19; in online collection Images of Colonial Africa. Permission pending.
China, ca. 1900. Southern Baptist missionaries in China, photograph, ca. 1900
Southern Baptist Historical Library and Archives. Permission pending.
Korea, ca. 1890. First Presbyterian Girls' School, Korea, ca. 1890, digitized from a photograph in Prof. Samuel Hugh Moffett's personal collection. Typed caption reads: "First Presbyterian Girls school founded in 1888 by Mrs. Bunker. Teachers present are Miss. Susan A. Doty (later Mrs. F. S. Miller) and Miss M. E. Hayden (later Mrs. D. L. Gifford). Photo taken about 1890 in Chong Dong area."
Princeton Theological Seminary Library and the American Theological Library Association. Permission pending.

Digital image courtesy of the American Theological Library Association Cooperative Digital Resources Initiative.
Japan, ca. 1882. Jacob Hartzler and the Japan Mission of the Methodist Evangelical Association, photograph, ca. 1882
United Methodist Church, Methodist Archives and History Center. Permission pending.

Digital image courtesy of Drew University, in online exhibition 200 Years of United Methodism: An Illustrated History.
Hawaii, ca. 1900. Text on back of photograph: "Children of many nationalities in our Waiaku Social Settlement. This is a distinctively Christian work carried out in congested communities where a church would be a less effective agency."
Tulane University, Amistad Research Center, Box 390, Folder 25. Permission pending.

Digital image courtesy of LOUISiana Digital Library Collections Online
in the online collection The American Missionary Association and the Promise of a Multicultural America: 1839-1954
Brazil, 1908. Baptist convention, Brazil, photograph, 1908
Southern Baptist Historical Library and Archives. Permission pending.
First Methodist mission in Oregon, founded in 1834 by Jason Lee, engraving, mid 19th century United Methodist Church, Methodist Archives and History Center. Permission pending.

Digital image courtesy of Drew University, in online exhibition 200 Years of United Methodism: An Illustrated History.
First church in Guthrie County, Iowa, founded by the Presbyterian Mission Society, photograph, 1856 Guthrie County Historical Village, Panora, Iowa. Permission pending.
Presbyterian missionary Kate McBeth and Nez PercÚ women students, Idaho, late 19th century. Back row: Kate McBeth, Pi-Nan-Cout. Front row: Rachel Frank, unidentified women. Idaho Historical Society, 63-221.88a. Permission pending.

Digital image courtesy of the University of Idaho Library, in online exhibition Kate and Sue McBeth: Missionary Teachers to the Nez PercÚ.
Nez PercÚ theological students of Kate McBeth, eight photograph portraits with dates of ordination and death, late 19th c. Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), Dept. of History and Records Management Services, and the Presbyterian Historical Society. Permission pending.

Digital images courtesy of the University of Idaho Library, in online exhibition Kate and Sue McBeth: Missionary Teachers to the Nez PercÚ
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions group, photographic print: (collodion printing-out paper); panoramic photograph by the American Panoramic View Co., 1901 Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division.
Call No: PAN SUBJECT - Groups no. 303 (E size) [P&P]
SLIDESHOW 2 - p. 2 (4 images)
China, ca. 1914. Missionary Blalock baptizing at Taianfu, China, photograph, ca. 1914
Southern Baptist Historical Library and Archives, Bostick Photo Album, AR 551-5 FF1-4. Permission pending.
West Africa, 1908. Conference of native workers, Oyo [Nigeria], photograph, July 1908
Southern Baptist Historical Library and Archives. Permission pending.
Angola, early 20th century. African American missionary (Methodist Episcopal) Martha Drummer and Susan Collins with their students, Quique, Angola, photograph, early 20th century
United Methodist Church, General Board of Global Ministries. Permission pending.
Korea, 1907. From the repository: "First meeting of the Presbytery of All Korea, Pyongyang, 17 Sept. 1907. Thirty-eight missionaries and forty Korean elders attended this organizational meeting of the national church."
Presbyterian Historical Society, in online exhibition Witness the Good News: Our Mission Heritage in Korea. Permission pending.
Christian baptism in China, ca. 1900. Caption in online collection: "Onlookers crowd a brick-lined well to glimpse the baptism of a new believer." International Mission Board, Southern Baptist Convention, in online collection Lottie Moon Christmas Offering, from the International Mission Board and Woman's Missionary Union. Permission pending.
SLIDESHOW 3 - p. 2 (3 images)
Embroidery class, Presbyterian mission, Korea, photograph, ca. 1915. Description from repository: "Anabel Nisbet (left, behind front row) teaching an embroidery class at the Mokpo Girls' School (later named the McCallie School for Girls), which she headed from 1911 until her death in 1920. Education for girls was new to Korea, and mission schools brought many Korean women out of their traditional seclusion and into active participation in church and community life."
Presbyterian Historical Society, in online exhibition Witness the Good News: Our Mission Heritage in Korea. Permission pending.
College class, Presbyterian mission, China, photograph, June 1899. Description from repository: "Individuals related to [Lingnan] University - First class of the Canton Christian College opened in the Sz Pai Lan Presbyterian Chapel (with Dr. O. F. Wisner)."
Yale Divinity Library, Archives of the United Board for Christian Higher Education in Asia, Box 405, Folder 5805A, No. 2844; in online collection China Christian Colleges and Universities Image Database. Permission pending.
Medical clinic, Southern Baptist mission, Africa (country or region unspecified), photograph, Foreign Mission Journal, November 1917
Southern Baptist Historical Library and Archives. Permission pending.
Missionary Emily Hartwell of the Women's Board of Missions with Chinese students, Foochow Mission, Fuzhou Shi (Fujian Sheng), China, photomechanical print: halftone, 1902 Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Call No: Illus. in BV2612.L5 (General Collections: illustration in Life and Light for Woman, Boston: Press of Rand, Avery, & Company, May 1902) .
Evangelical Bible conference of an invited group of college YMCA leaders, from which grew the Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions, Mount Hermon, Massachusetts, photograph, July 1886 Repository unknown. Digital image courtesy of SVM2 (Student Volunteer Movement 2). Permission pending.
SLIDESHOW 4 - p. 3 (4 images)
American Tract Society, The White Foreigners from over the Water: The Story of the American Mission to the Burmese and the Karens, New York: American Tract Society, 186-; title page and first page of the table of contents

Hiram Bingham, Story of the Morning Star, The Children's Missionary Vessel, Boston: American Board [of Commissioners for Foreign Missions], 1866; title page

Daniel C. Eddy, Daughters of the Cross: Or, Woman's Mission, New York: Dayton and Wentworth, 1855; title page and illustration

Ellen H. B. Mason, Tounghoo Women: Ladies, Will You Approve or Condemn?, New York: Anson D. F. Randolph, publisher, 1860; cover illustration entitled "West Gate Tounghoo in 1853" drawn and signed: Mrs. F. Mason [i.e. Ellen B. H. Mason]
Making of America, University of Michigan Library. Permission pending.

Also accessible through The Nineteenth Century in Print (American Memory, Library of Congress).
"Woman's State Organizations, Cooperating with the American Missionary Association," The American Missionary, Vol. 43, Issue 10 (October 1889), p. 294 Making of America, Cornell University Library. Permission pending.

Also accessible through The Nineteenth Century in Print (American Memory, Library of Congress).
Membership certificate of Nathaniel Hitchcock, New York, NY, in the American Missionary Association, 17 August 1865 Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, Deerfield, Massachusetts, L01.089; in online collection Memorial Hall Museum Online. Permission pending.
Illustration of a preacher, Harper's Weekly, 16 June 1877, by Féix Régamey, wood engraving (detail), entitled "Sunday service on board a Pacific mail steamship" Denver Public Library, Western History/Genealogy Dept. Permission pending.

Also accessible through History of the American West, 1860-1920 (American Memory, Library of Congress).
The American Missionary, Sept. 1882, cover page, with portraits of a Native American, Anglo-American, Chinese man, and a southern black man. Banners read "They Are Rising, All Are Rising, The Black and White Together." Making of America, Cornell University Library. Permission pending.

Also accessible through The Nineteenth Century in Print (American Memory, Library of Congress).
Woman with bound feet, China, ca. 1900 (detail). Caption in online collection: "Chinese children and women rest from their begging. The woman near the center wears pointed-toe shoes for bound feet. Lottie Moon fought hard to end this torturous practice, which crowded the heel bone toward the toes to shorten the feet. Infection leading to gangrene and death was often the price Chinese females paid to be beautiful." International Mission Board, Southern Baptist Convention, in online collection Lottie Moon Christmas Offering, from the International Mission Board and Woman's Missionary Union. Permission pending.
Episcopal chaplain on ship standing near U.S. flag; U.S. naval chaplain A. A. McAllister, n. p.; photograph (glass negative), between 1890 and 1901 Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Detroit Publishing Company Photograph Collection, LC-D4-21459
Episcopal missionary with Dakota Indians, Minnesota, 1897 (NHC note: perhaps a mission near Redwood Falls, MN). Caption from repository: "Reverend W. H. Knowlton, Episcopal missionary, and Dakota Indian men, Redwood Mission. Photographer: Edward Augustus Bromley (1848-1925)." Minnesota Historical Society, Visual Resources Database, Location no. E91.7L p8, Negative no. 17868. Permission pending.
Congregational missionary with members of the Hawaiian royal family, 1849. Caption and information from Hawaii History Timeline: "Lot Kamehameha, Dr. Gerrit Judd (standing), and Alexander Liholiho. Alexander Liholiho and Lot Kapuaiwa, grandsons of Kamehameha I through his daughter Elisabeta Kinau, later ruled Hawai'i as Kamehameha IV and V. While still teenagers, they traveled to the United States and Europe accompanied by their guardian Dr. Gerritt Judd. Alexander Liholiho celebrated his 16th birthday in Paris where he learned to fence and speak French. He and Lot met with French President Louis-Napoleon, with Prince Albert in London, and with President Zachary Taylor and Vice President Millard Fillmore in Washington, D.C. While traveling by train through the United States, the young princes contended with racial slurs and discrimination, treatment which forever prejudiced Alexander Liholiho especially against Americans." Hawaii State Archives (probably), in online exhibition HawaiiHistory.com. Permission pending.
"Jesus Loves Me," sheet music (detail), Korean translation in Hymns of Praise, a Presbyterian mission publication, 1894 Presbyterian Historical Society, in online exhibition Witness the Good News: Our Mission Heritage in Korea. Permission pending.

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