Bibliography: Environmental History of the South
Refer to sections "Flora and Fauna," "Industrialization," and "Culture" in this extensive bibliography from Professor Carolyn Merchant, University of California, Berkeley.
Geology and the Civil War
Presents essays, organizations, links, etc., [click "Example of a Geological Application" on the home page] as part of the Interdisciplinary Project of the U.S. Civil War Center of Louisiana State University. Currently includes four essays by geologist Robert C. Whisonant of Radford University, whose study pursues "the connections between the geology, geography, and human history" of southwestern Virginia:
"Geology and the Civil War in Southwestern Virginia: Union Raiders in the New River Valley, May 1864," by Robert C. Whisonant. Originally published in Virginia Minerals, Vol.43 No. 4 (November 1997).
Highly readable analysis of the geological context and consequences of two little-known battles. Whisonant asks "What prompted the United States Army in the spring of 1864 to invade this remote part of Virginia, a seemingly unimportant backwater compared to the great battles raging simultaneously in other theaters? How was the campaign conducted across this difficult terrain? What were the results?"
"Geology and History of the Civil War Iron Industry in the New River-Cripple Creek District of Southwestern Virginia," by Robert C. Whisonant. Originally published in Virginia Minerals, Vol, 44, No. 4
"Geology and the Civil War in Southwestern Virginia: the Smythe County Salt Works," by Robert C. Whisonant. Originally published in Virginia Minerals, Vol, 42 (August 1996).
"Geology and the Civil War in Southwestern Virginia: the Wythe County Lead Mines," by Robert C. Whisonant. Originally published in Virginia Minerals, Vol, 42, No. 2 (May 1996).
Brief article on Whisonant's study: "Geology meets history," Smyth County (Virginia) News & Messenger, Nov. 16, 1996.
Environmental Science and the Civil War
A page under construction as part of the same project as "Geology and the Civil War" abovethe Interdisciplinary Project of the U.S. Civil War Center of Louisiana State University, with the goal to create "a separate page for each profession, occupation, and academic discipline to provide factual, exploratory, and speculative perspectives on the Civil War.
Geology and the Gettysburg Campaign of 1863
Brief overview with drawings and photographs to demonstrate the significance of the rough terrain in several areas of the battle of Gettysburg, prepared as a student field project in the Department of Geology at the State University of New YorkOswego. View this site in conjunction with the 360° panoramic images of Gettysburg described below ("Behind the Stonewall"). Underscores Professor Kirby's conclusion in his essay that "Lee ignored his map and geology, with consequences indeed."
Environmental Impact of Sherman's March (Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia, 1864)
Press release entitled "Historical march of Civil War general [Sherman] had no large-scale environmental impact," from the University of Georgia Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, May 29, 1996; based on a research project by ecologist John Pinder using satellite images, field study data, and GIS technology to identify any residual effects of the march. Pinder concludes his findings with this note: "This is not to say there weren't any lasting environmental effects of Sherman's March. . . . Towns were destroyed and people relocated. But the effects were local, not regional, in impact."
"After the Battle [of Antietam]," 1862
Several environmental effects of Civil War battles which Professor Kirby discusses in his essay, from crop destruction to unburied corpses, are included in this easy-to-read article on the aftermath of the 1862 Battle of Antietam; from The [Hagerstown, Maryland] Herald Mail, Sept. 18, 1987.
Eyewitness Account of the Destruction of Atlanta, 1864
Report of W. P. Howard to Joseph E. Brown, Governor of Georgia, Dec. 7, 1864; on the website of the Carl Vinson Institute of Government, University of Georgia (subsection "The Civil War in Georgia").
The Battle of the Wilderness [Fredericksburg, Virginia]: A Virtual Tour
Suitable for applying Professor Kirby's discussion of battlefield landscape, this award-winning site presents a "virtual tour" through the battle sites with photographs and paintings (current and contemporary). The page describing the deaths of many soldiers caught in the engulfing brushfires is at http://home.att.net/~hallowed-ground/saunders.htm. Site created by Jim Schmidt and Curtis Fears, two amateur Civil War historians, who have also created a Fredericksburg Battlefield Virtual Tour at http://home.att.net/%7ehallowed-ground/fburg_virtual_tour.htm.
Behind the Stonewall: 360° Panoramic Images from Civil War Battlefields
A unique collection of 105 360° panoramic photographs (present-day) of Civil War battlefields. One can apply Professor Kirby's discussion of battlefield landscape most directly to the panoramas listed below (*page with panorama and explanation):
- Main page: http://www.jatruck.com/stonewall/gettysburg.html
- *Devil's Den (from top): http://www.jatruck.com/stonewall/big_pans/dd_ontop.htm
- *Devil's Den (from bottom): http://www.jatruck.com/stonewall/big_pans/dd_bott.htm
- *Big Round Top (summit): http://www.jatruck.com/stonewall/big_pans/big_rt.htm
- *Little Round Top (below the summit):
- *Little Round Top (from the summit):
- *Valley of Death: http://www.jatruck.com/stonewall/big_pans/vodabove.htm
- Valley of Death (from above):
- *The Triangular Field: http://www.jatruck.com/stonewall/big_pans/dd_tria.htm
- Main page: http://www.jatruck.com/stonewall/antietam.html
- Burnside Bridge: http://www.jatruck.com/stonewall/ant_pans/antietam08.htm
- The Sunken Road: http://www.jatruck.com/stonewall/ant_pans/antietam11.htm
- Main page: http://www.jatruck.com/stonewall/chickamauga.html
- *Day One: Near the 79th Pennsylvania Position:
- *Day One: Initial Position of the 79th Pennsylvania:
- *Day Two: Position of the 79th Pennsylvania:
- Deep Cut: http://www.jatruck.com/stonewall/ant_pans/manassas19.htm
- Stuart's Hill: http://www.jatruck.com/stonewall/ant_pans/manassas16.htm
Bull Run "FlyBy"
For another battlefield perspective (for applying Professor Kirby's points on battlefield landscape), run this computer generated "fly-through" of the Bull Run battlefield, created by Menotomy Maps using U.S. Geological Survey data and scans of Civil War-era maps. On the site of the U.S. Civil War Center at Louisana State University.
Arranging Class Trips to Civil War Battlefield Parks
As Professor Kirby suggests, a class trip to a battlefield park "would be the capstone of students' classroom re-visioning of the war." Among the parks with helpful online education guides are:
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park: http://www.nps.gov/frsp/fburg.htm
Gettysburg National Military Park: http://www.nps.gov/gett/home.htm
Manassas National Battlefield Park: http://www.nps.gov/mana/home.htm
Petersburg National Battlefield: http://www.nps.gov/pete/mahan/PNBhome.html
Vicksburg National Military Park: http://www.nps.gov/vick/home.htm
The National Park Service and National Register for Historic Places sponsor an extensive and resource-full program "Teaching With Historic Places" at http://www.cr.nps.gov/NR/twhp.
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Office of History
Summary of the construction and mapping services of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, including
A brief history, including the Civil War: http://www.hq.usace.army.mil/history/brief.htm
Historic Image Library (over 500 images): http://images.usace.army.mil/historical.html
A FAQ page, with an e-mail link to submit questions:
Online publication: Historical Vignettes, Vol. II
Go to Chapter 3: "Memorable Engineers": the two Civil War vignettes are those
on Major General James B. McPherson and on Gouverneur K. Warren at Gettysburg.
U.S. Army Engineers, History and Traditions
A brief history and miscellaneous information from the U.S. Army Engineer Museum in Missouri.
U.S. Corps of Topographical Engineers (living history group)
http://www.topogs.org (home page) http://www.topogs.org/index.htm (contents)
Well-organized site (once you get to the index/contents page) created to "portray the history and techniques of the Corps from its inception [in 1813] through the Civil War"; includes a detailed history, a large map collection organized by state, technical information on war cartography, personnel rosters, bibliography, web resources, and more.
Civil War Battlefield Maps, many produced by military engineers and cartographers (an assortment of the online maps or collections):
- Civil War Maps from the Library of Congress
Massive collection, all with digital images, includes maps by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and by Major Jedediah Hotchkiss, a topographical engineer in the Confederate Army. Searchable by keyword, and browsable by subject, creator, title, and geographic area.
- Civil War Maps from the National Archives
To access 14 battlefield maps with digital images, go to this page and
(1) in the Keyword bars, type in "battlefield"
(2) under the heading "Media," click "Maps and Charts"
(3) under the heading "NARA Units," leave the entry at "All Units"
(4) scroll to the bottom of the page and click "Submit Search"
(5) at the results page, click "Display Results."
To access 210 maps produced by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, many of them from the Civil War era, return to the search page and enter "Corps" and "Engineers" in the Keyword bars.
- David Rumsey Collection / Cartography Associates
A large collection of Civil War maps is available at this technologically sophisticated site.
- "Map of the Battlefield of Gettysburg with Position of Troops, July 2nd, 1863. Top.1 office, A.N.V. by L. Howell Brown, 1st Lieut. Engr. Troops In charge Top.1 Dept. A.N.Va."
From the University of California-Berkeley Library Cartographic Collections (section:
Thematic maps) at http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/EART/digital/tour.html
- "Rebel Line of Works at Blakely, Ala., Captured by the Army of the Mississippi, April 9, 1865. Positions and Approaches by the Union Forces."
Map "accompanying the report of the Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army, to the Secretary of War, dated October 30, 1854." From the Historic Blakeley State Park, Alabama.
Civil War Maps from the Virginia Historical Society
Reproductions of 63 of the maps produced by the Engineer Bureau of the Confederate States War Department and saved by bureau chief Jeremy Francis Gilmer from destruction in the 1865 Richmond fires; described by Professor Kirby in this essay.
U.S. Geological Survey: Finding and Ordering Topographic Maps
Guide to ordering from the USGS collection of 70,000 topographic maps (as mentioned in this essay by Professor Kirby).
"Infectious Diseases During the Civil War: The Triumph of the 'Third Army'"
Illustrated article by Jeffrey S. Sartin. M.D.; originally appeared in Clinical Infectious Diseases 1993; 16:580-4.
Diseases of Entomological Importance: The American Civil War -- Federal Army, 1861-66
Statistics on dysentery, malaria, typhoid and other infectious diseases, from the Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion, Vol. 1, Part 1. On the award-winning website "Insects, History, and Disease" from the University of Nebraska Department of Entomology.
"Insects and the Civil War"
Well-written article by Gary L. Miller reviewing the "insect role in the transmission of disease-causing organisms" in the Civil War; divided into sections by type of insect (louse, biting fly, flea, etc.), illustrated and with excerpts from soldiers' letters, reporters' accounts, surgeons' reports, etc.; originally appeared in American Entomologist 43:227-245. On the award-winning website "Insects, History, and Disease" from the University of Nebraska Department of Entomology (home page at http://entomology.unl.edu/history_bug/bughome.htm).
"Notes on the Personal Hygiene of Civil War Soldiers"
Well-referenced article by Robert A. Braum reviewing hygiene standards and military hygiene policies during the Civil War; on the site of the 33rd Wisconsin Volunteer Volunteer Infantry.
Disease and Smallpox in a Union Regiment, from The Calvin Shedd Papers: The Civil War in Florida: Letters of a New Hampshire Soldier
Throughout the letters written by this Union soldier are reports of ill health and disease, including smallpox and typhoid. Letters are summarized with links to the transcripts at http://www.library.miami.edu/archives/shedd/letters.htm. From the University of Miami Richter Library.
Horses in the Civil War
Brief article entitled "Horsepower moves the guns" by James R. Cotner from America's Civil War, March 1996.
"The War Horse," Virginia Historical Society
Brief article on "The War Horse," the bronze sculpture presented to the Virginia Historical Society to commemorate the Civil War service of horses and mules (and mentioned by Professor Kirby in his essay).
Open Range vs. Enclosure
A brief citation-ful summary of the open range laws in the southern states; on the site of the Siskiyou County Farm Bureau, California.
"An Act to Repeal the Fence Law of Virginia," 1862
Full text of "An Act to repeal the Fence Law of Virginia as to certain Counties, and to authorize the County Courts to dispense with Enclosures in other Counties" (scroll halfway down the page to Chapter 14.) On the site Documenting the American South from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
W. E. B. DuBois on African-American farmers in the postbellum South (including the effects of the fence law)
W. E. B. Du Bois's experiences meeting poverty-stricken black tenant farmers in Georgia in the late 1800s, in Ch. 7, "Of the Black Belt," in The Souls of Black Folk, 1903. A search for "fence-law" will take you to Du Bois's description of a man who, "perhaps if the new fence-law had not allowed unfenced crops in West Dougherty . . . might have raised a little stock and kept ahead." Du Bois intro page at http://www.bartleby.com/people/DuBois-W.html. From Bartleby.com: Great Books Online.
George Perkins Marsh, Man and Nature, 1864
Full text: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/consrv:@band(amrvg+vg07):@@@$REF$
Marsh's pivotal environmental tract, Man and Nature; or Physical Geography, as Modified by Human Action, 1864; on the Library of Congress American Memory website.
Selected Papers of George Perkins Marsh
A collection of Marsh's letters and writings (including several on the Civil War), preceded by a biography of Marsh, from the Special Collections of Bailey/Howe Library, University of Vermont. Also on the site is a review of Marsh's Man and Nature; or Physical Geography, as Modified by Human Action in The New York Times, July 25, 1864, at http://sageunix.uvm.edu/~sc/nytimes.html.
John Muir Exhibit, Sierra Club
Vast online resource on John Muir from the Sierra Club with primary and secondary sources, chronologies, multimedia presentations, FAQs, bibliographies, the full 1924 biography by William F. Bade, teaching materials, web resources, message board, and more. Perusing the alphabetical index is recommended: http://www.sierraclub.org/john_muir_exhibit/alphabetical_list.html.
Frederick Law Olmsted
Overviews of 15-plus major Olmsted projects in landscape design, plus a brief biography, a bibliography, web links, information on major colleagues, etc.
Return to "The Use of the Land" Links to Online Resources
Return to the essay, The American Civil War: An Environmental View
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