OFFICIAL WEBSITES OF THE FIVE TRIBES
Southeast Indians (including sources of traditional stories of the five tribes)
Annotated bibliography (K-12 resources) from the Anthropology Outreach Office, Smithsonian Institution.
Native Americans of the Southeast
Annotated bibliography including books, journal articles, dissertations, videos, sound recordings, and more; from Appalachian State University Libraries.
American Ethnic Geography: American Indians
Section in the bibliography (unannotated) presented by Prof. Jon T. Kilpinen, Dept. of Geography, Valparaiso University.
Indians of the Southeast: Juvenile and Professional Books
Bibliography with brief annotations from the Internet School Library Media Center (site administrator: Inez Ramsey, Professor Emeritus, Library Science Program, James Madison University).
Cherokee and Southeastern Indians
Annotated bibliography from the National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution.
Cherokee General Studies
Annotated bibliography from Prof. Donald N. Panther-Yates, Dept.
of English and Foreign Languages, University of West Florida.
A Creek Indian Bibliography
Prepared independently by reference librarian Anne Gometz.
Indian Removal Era
Annotated bibliography from the Alabama Dept. of Archives and History.
Click "Recommended Reading" for an annotated bibliography from the Trail of Tears Monumental Painting Project.
Ecological Subregions of the United States
Valuable if not essential resource for comparing the physical environments of the five tribes before and after Removal, with ecological descriptions and photographs of each region.
U.S. Forest Service
From the url above, scroll to the bottom of the page to access
the Ecosystem Provinces map (above) with active links to the region descriptions—which are also accessible via the essay; see
More detailed descriptions based on the U.S. Forest Service map, including land use, cultural ecology, geomorphology, vegetation, and fauna are available at
Terrestrial Ecoregions of North America (Nearctic)
Detailed ecological descriptions, with color photographs, emphasizing ecological and conservation issues. From the world-map page (url above), choose "Nearctic" to access the North America regions index. For example, see
Region titles and boundaries differ from the U.S. Forest Service map above. From the World Wildlife Fund and National Geographic; also available with a more sophisticated but unwieldy interactive map at the National Geographic site at http://www.nationalgeographic.org/wildworld/terrestrial.html
Geologic Provinces of the United States
usgsnps/province/province.html (with map at right)
Another factor in comparing the tribal regions before and after
Removal; from the U.S. Geological Survey and National Park Service.
||Before Removal: East of the Mississippi
After Removal: West of the Mississippi in Indian Territory
Geologic Provinces of the U.S. (numbers added by TeacherServe)
Ecoregions of Oklahoma
Map and brief descriptive list from the Oklahoma Dept. of Wildlife Conservation.
American Indians: Culture Regions
Map and brief description of twelve cultural divisions of Native Americans in North and Middle America; from the website American-Indians.net.
THE U.S. GENWEB PROJECT (Rootsweb): genealogical site with state-based "genwebs" that contain historical overviews, research links, and, not to be overlooked, county and family histories.
Twin Territories: Oklahoma Territory/Indian Territory
The Cherokee Nation of Indian Territory
Cherokee Archival Project
Cherokee and Chickasaw in Northwest Alabama
Cherokee, Choctaw, and Creek in Mississippi
The Chickasaw in Northeast Mississippi
Chickasaw Cessions in Tennessee
Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory
Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory
Choctaw and American Indian Research Links
Creek Nation, Indian Territory
Among the Creeks
The Seminole in Florida
Seminole Nation, Indian Territory (originally on RootsWeb)
THE FIVE TRIBES BEFORE REMOVAL, including legends; also see the official tribal sites and USGenWeb sites, above.
Native People of North America: Southeast Culture Area
Overview of history, language, settlements, agricultural and hunting
patterns, political and social organization, religion, and more from
Chuck Smith, Dept. of Anthropology, Cabrillo College (CA).
The "Five Civilized Tribes"
Brief overviews from the Ocmulgee National Monument (Georgia),
National Park Service.
Cherokee Archaeology in North Carolina
Brief overview of Cherokee villages and life in the Appalachians; from the North Carolina Division of Archives and History.
Cherokee and Creek in North Georgia
Historical overviews from the site About North Georgia.
Cherokee and Chickasaw in Tennessee
Article by Michael White, presented on the website Historic
History of the Cherokee
On the personal website of Ken Martin, a Cherokee.
Cherokee Women's Resistance to Agrarian Capitalism
Academic paper, "Rethinking Cherokee Acculturation: Agrarian Capitalism and Women's Resistance to the Cult of Domesticity, 1800-1838," by Prof. Wilma A. Dunaway, Department of Sociology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 21 American Indian Culture and Research Journal 155.
The Chickasaw People
Article from A Concise Dictionary of Indian Tribes of North America (1979), on the site of the University of Tennessee at Martin Libraries.
Chickasaw Documents (before and after Removal)
Collection of letters, treaties, and other primary materials compiled by K. M. Armstrong, a Chickasaw, on his personal website.
Choctaw History, Villages, Legends, etc.
Extensive and useful collection of resource materials compiled by Michael Boucher, a Choctaw.
List of web resources compiled by Kathleen Manley Nystrom for her family history website.
Choctaw and the Market Economy
Article "Mushulatubbee and Choctaw Removal: Chiefs Confront a Changing World," by Greg O'Brien, Dept. of History, University of Southern Mississippi, in Mississippi History Now online.
Creek Indians (Muscogee) of Alabama and Georgia
Rich resource of annotated weblinks, including maps.
Creek in Alabama: Their Towns and Traditions
Brief intro from the Alabama Dept. of Archives and History.
The Creek Indians in Alabama
Includes discussion of environmental factors in the Creek culture; from the web site TexasIndians.com.
The Creek in Alabama, early 1800s
Online text of Reminiscences of the Creek, or Muscogee Indians, contained in letters to friends in Georgia and Alabama, by Thomas S. Woodward, 1859; on the personal website of Jim Upchurch.
Creek Indian Towns in Southwest Georgia (1790s)
Overview from the National Indian Festival Association (on a personal website).
Creek Indian FAQ
Helpful Q&As from a personal site on Creek history.
Indians and the Southern Fur Trade
Academic publication, "The Southern Fur Trade and the Incorporation of Southern Appalachia into the World-Economy, 1690-1763," 1994, by Prof. Wilma A. Dunaway, Department of Sociology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
INDIAN REMOVAL: BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARIES
To access more online resources on Indian Removal, conduct web searches with key phrases "Indian Removal," "Trail of Tears," "Indian Territory, Oklahoma" and individual tribal names (with "Nation," as in "Choctaw Nation").
From the PBS site "Africans in America."
The Cherokee Removal and the Trail of Tears (with map)
On the site of Cape Girardeau, Missouri.
The Choctaw and Removal
From the Museum of the Red River, Idabel, Oklahoma.
The Removal Act of 1830
From Mt. Holyoke College.
THE "FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES" IN INDIAN TERRITORY AFTER REMOVAL
Note: There are limited online resources about the environmental, agricultural, and economic history of the five tribes, as a whole, after their settlement in Indian Territory. One rich source of anecdotal information is the Oklahoma county histories and genealogical resources at OKGenWeb (http://www.rootsweb.com/~okgenweb/) and the county listing by tribe at http://www.rootsweb.com/~okgenweb/okprojects/). Other resources are listed below.
The Fur Trade in the Indian Territory
Based on research from the Oklahoma Historical Society.
Farming in Indian Territory
Brief discussion in "Agriculture, Indians, and American History,"
by Thomas Wessel, Agricultural History, Jan. 1976; on the site of
the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, North Carolina State University.
The Cherokee Nation in Indian Territory
Collection of primary sources and background materials prepared
in a class project in collaboration with the Digital Scriptorium, Special Collections Library, Duke University.
Choctaw Timberland in Indian Territory
Article "Tribal land to private land: A century of Oklahoma Choctaw Timberland Alienation," by Sandra L. Faiman-Silva, Journal of Forest
History, October 1988; on the personal site of Choctaw Michael Boucher.
Texas Band of Choctaw Indians
Includes resource-rich family histories of Choctaws who settled
in east Texas before and after Removal of the 1830s.
The Chickasaw People
Brief section on the Chickasaw agriculture and business after Removal; from the University of Tennessee, Martin, Library.
Timeline: Central Oklahoma region, 1782-1889
Timeline with several events relating to the five tribes after
removal; entitled "The Unassigned Lands of Oklahoma Territory" (six counties
in central Oklahoma).
The Five Tribes before the Civil War
First section of this excerpt from "The Indian Country," The Century Magazine, August 1885; on the family website of the Yearwoods, Edmond, Oklahoma.
The Civil War in Indian Territory
Clear overview with bibliography; by Ann Maloney on Rootsweb.
The Civil War Comes to Indian Territory
Maps, documents, and photographs in this teaching lesson from the National Park Service (Honey Springs Battlefield, Oklahoma).
Freedmen of Indian Territory
On the former slaves and free persons of color in the "Five Civilized Tribes," from the African-Native American History & Genealogy Web Page.
Primary documents from the site Making of America (Cornell University):
Native American Manuscript Resources, University of Oklahoma
Use menu to select tribal manuscript collection guides (not digitized), which provide organizational structures for researching the five tribes.
Native American Tribes, Culture Areas, and Linguistic Stocks (zoom-able map)
From the Smithsonian Institution, 1967, on the site of the Native
American History Archive from Teachers College, Columbia University.
Series of maps depicting the progressive loss of Cherokee land
before Removal; on the personal site of Ken Martin, a Cherokee.
Entitled "A New Map of Georgia," with tribal lands identified;
from the Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Georgia
Libraries; home page of Map Collection at http://www.libs.uga.edu/darchive/hargrett/maps/maps.html.
Mississippi and Alabama, 1814
Entitled "Mississippi Territory," with tribal lands identified;
from the Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Georgia
Map "according to John Melish," with tribal land boundaries; page
from a publication of the Alabama Dept. of Archives and History, placed
on a geneological site for Washington County, Alabama.
Map of the Country Belonging to the Creek and Cherokee Indians,
From the Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University
of Georgia Libraries.
Cherokee in Georgia, 1831
Entitled "A Map of that Part of Georgia Occupied by the Cherokee Indians,1831," from the Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Georgia Libraries.
Map of the Former Territorial Limits of the Cherokee Nation,
Black and white map, from the Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Georgia Libraries.
Indian Territory, 1884
Detailed map from Hardesty's Historical and Geographical Encyclopedia,1884; from the Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin.
Indian Land Sessions in the United States [by state], 1884
At this page, which presents the Alabama map, click "To see all pages [state maps], click on the image [of the Alabama map]. Proceed to Alabama (northern portion), Florida, Georgia, Indian Territory (1-3), Mississippi, North Carolina, Tennessee and Bordering States, Tennessee (detail), Tennessee and Alabama (portions of); from the Library of Congress.
The Trail of Tears: Map
From the McClung Museum, University of Tennessee, courtesy of the National Geographic Society.
The Trail of Tears: Interactive Map
From the Museum of the Cherokee Indian, North Carolina.
The Trail of Tears: Animated Map
From the Trail of Tears Monumental Painting Project.
Oklahoma and Indian Territory maps
At this home page of the Library of Congress online collection
"Map Collections, 1500-1999," conduct a subject search for "Indian Territory" to access six maps from the late 1800s.
Oklahoma and Indian Territory maps
From OKGenWeb (The U.S. Gen Web Project).
Tribal Regions in Indian Territory
From the National Park Service.
With former Indian nation boundaries and present county boundaries, from OKGenWeb.
More historical and current maps from OKGen Web.
Shaded relief maps from the online Color Landform Atlas of the
United States (Ray Sterner, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics
LEGENDS, FOLKLORE, CEREMONIES (for illustrating how Native Americans explained the form of their environment, as suggested by Prof. Kidwell)
American Indian Traditional Stories and Mythology
Bibliography from the Anthropology Outreach Office, Smithsonian Institution.
Native American Mythology
Hundreds of summaries of American Indian legends, from the online Encyclopedia Mythica (Native American mythology advisor: Prof. Gerald Musinsky, Temple University).
CAPTIVITY NARRATIVES and BIOGRAPHIES of TRIBAL CHIEFS (for understanding the perceptions of colonists and Native Americans toward each other during and after the Revolutionary Era, as suggested by Prof. Kidwell)
An account of the captivity of Elizabeth Hanson, now
or late of Kachecky, in New-England: who, with four of her children and
servant-maid, was taken captive by the Indians, and carried into Canada:
setting forth the various remarkable occurrences, sore trials, and wonderful
deliverances which befel them after their departure, to the time of their
redemption, by Elizabeth Hanson and Samuel Bownas, 1760. From Early
A narrative of the captivity and sufferings of Benjamin Gilbert
and his family: who were surprised by the Indians and taken from their
farms on the frontiers of Pennsylvania in the spring, by Benjamin Gilbert, 1780. From Early Canadiana Online.
Memoirs of a captivity among the Indians of North America, from childhood to the age of nineteen: with anecdotes descriptive of their manners and customs. To which is added, some account of the soil, climate, and vegetable productions of the territory westward of the Mississippi, by John Dunn Hunter, 3d ed., 1824. From the site Voices of 19th-Century America from Dr. Pat Pfleiger, Dept. of English, West Chester University of Pennsylvania.
(scroll down to introductory material with links to the text)
A narrative of the captivity of Mrs. Johnson: containing
an account of her sufferings, during four years, with the Indians and French, by Susanna Willard Johnson Hastings, 1827. From Early Canadiana Online (1875 edition also available at the site).
Nine years a captive, or, John Gyles' experience among the Malicite Indians, from 1689 to 1698, by John Gyles and James Hannay, 1875. From Early Canadiana Online.
Life of Tecumseh, and of his brother the prophet: with a historical sketch of the Shawanoe Indians, by Benjamin Drake, 1841. From Early Canadiana Online.
Addresses by Tribal Chiefs Tecumseh and John Ross
Delivered to the Choctaw and Cherokee tribes before Removal; on the site First American Forefathers created by Tacha Hanhepi Wi ("Moon Deer").
NATIVE AMERICAN HERBAL MEDICINE
Native American Healing and Medicine: Bibliography
List with brief annotations from the Anthropology Outreach Office, Smithsonian Institution.
Traditional Indian Medicine: Bibliography
List of published resources from the Association of American Indian
Native American Ethnobotany Database: Foods, Drugs, Dyes, and Fibers of Native North American Peoples
Searchable database from Dan Moerman, Professor of Anthropology,
University of Michigan, Dearborn.
Medicinal Plants of the Southern Appalachians
Research guide from the Appalachian State University Libraries.
Native American Herbal Medicines
From the Cherokee Cultural Society of Houston.
Excerpts from six historical sources, on a family genealogical
WEB RESOURCES FOR GENERAL NATIVE AMERICAN STUDIES
Native American Studies: Web Resources (from AcademicInfo.net)
Native American Resources (from Digital Librarian
Native Web: Resources for Indigenous Cultures around the World
Native American History and Culture (from the Smithsonian
Recommended Books for Children on Native American Subjects (from
the Smithsonian Institution)
National Museum of the American Indian (Smithsonian Institution)
Native American Navigator
K-12 web materials compiled by the Native American History Archive,
Teachers College, Columbia University.
Return to "Native Americans and the Land" Links to Online Resources
Return to the essay, The Effects of Removal on American Indian Tribes
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