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Related to "Native Americans and the Land" Essay:
 Buffalo Tales by Shepard Krech III


19th-century American writings on the buffalo among the facsimile publications from Making of America, a digital library of primary sources in 19th- and early 20th-century American social history [Cornell home page: http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/moa; University of Michigan home page: http://moa.umdl.umich.edu]. Listed here in chronological order.
"Scenes in the West; or, A Night on the Santa Fe Trail, Pt. III," by Philip St. George Cooke, Southern Literary Messenger, February 1842, pp. 145-149.
http://www.hti.umich.edu/cgi/m/moajrnl/moajrnl-idx?notisid=ACF2679-1622SOUT-49

"A Brush with a Bison," by John Mills, Harper's Weekly, July 1851, pp. 218-222.
http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?notisid=ABK4014-0003-46

"In the Buffalo Country," by George D. Brewerton, Harper's Weekly, September 1862, pp. 447-466 [go to pp. 455, 460].
http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?notisid=ABK4014-0025-61

"The Main Buffalo Herd in Kansas," Scientific American, September 12,
1863, p. 163.
http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?notisid=ABF2204-1009-13

"The Buffalo Range," by Theodore R. Davis, Harper's Weekly, January 1869, pp. 147-148 [illustrated by the author].
http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?notisid=ABK4014-0038-23

"Buffalo-Hunting," Appleton's Journal, November 5, 1870 [listed as 1896 in MoA access page], pp. 554-555.
http://www.hti.umich.edu/cgi/m/moajrnl/moajrnl-idx?notisid=ACW8433-1330
APPL-334

Buffalo land: an authentic account of the discoveries, adventures, and mishaps of a scientific and sporting party in the wild West; with graphic descriptions of the country; the red man, savage and civilized; hunting the buffalo, antelope ... etc., etc., by William Edward Webb, drawings by Henry Worrall. Cincinnati: E. Hannaford, 1872. [504 pages]
http://moa.umdl.umich.edu/cgi/sgml/moa-idx?notisid=AKR1255

"A Great Buffalo 'Pot-Hunt,'" by H. M. Robinson, Appleton's Journal, September 1876, pp. 215-223.
http://www.hti.umich.edu/cgi/m/moajrnl/moajrnl-idx?notisid=ACW8433-1342APPL-55

"The Western Outlook for Sportsmen," by Franklin Satterthwaite, Harper's Weekly, May 1889, pp. 873-880 [see pp. 874-875].
http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?notisid=ABK4014-0078-98

"Hunting the Bison," by Dagmar Mariager, Overland Monthly and Out West Magazine, August 1889, pp. 190-196.
http://moa.umdl.umich.edu/cgi/sgml/moa-idx?notisid=AHJ1472-1381OVER-31

"In the Prime of the Buffalo," by J. M. Baltimore, Overland Monthly and Out West Magazine, November 1889, pp. 515-520.
http://moa.umdl.umich.edu/cgi/sgml/moa-idx?notisid=AHJ1472-1381OVER-83

"The Last of the Buffalo," by George Bird Grinnell, Scribner's, September 1892, pp. 267-287 [illustrated].
http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?notisid=AFR7379-0012-32

"The Story of the Buffalo," by Hamlin Russell, Harper's Weekly, April 1893, pp. 795-798.
http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?notisid=ABK4014-0086-81

"The Last Hunt of the Pawnees," by J. F. Bixby, Overland Monthly and Out West Magazine, January 1897, pp. 52-61.
http://www.hti.umich.edu/cgi/m/moajrnl/moajrnl-idx?notisid=AHJ1472-1396OVER-17
Many other publications with reference to buffalo herds and hunting may be found in the Making of America collections through a site search.


"Slaughtered for the Hide," Harper's Weekly, 1874.
http://thewest.harpweek.com/Sections/buffalo/SlaughteredForHide1005.htm
Text of brief article on buffalo hide hunters in December 12, 1874 issue of Harper's Weekly (p. 1022); in the section "The American West" on HarpWeek.com.


"The Extermination of the American Buffalo," 1889.
The influential 1889 report of William Hornaday, Superintendent of the National Zoological Park, written as part of the Smithsonian Institution annual report, 1886/1887. On the Library of Congress American Memory website.
         Excerpts
         http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/features/timeline/riseind/west/bison.html
         Entire report
         http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/consrv:@field(DOCID+@lit(VR02))
         summary from Library of Congress
         http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgibin/query/r?ammem/consrvbib:@field(NUMBER+@band
         (amrvr+VR02)):


Excerpt from The Buffalo Harvest, by Frank H. Mayer with Charles B. Rothon, 1958.
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/wpages/wpgs650/buffalo.htm
Account of buffalo hunting in the 1870s by one of the "last great buffalo hunters"; presented on the site accompanying the PBS series The West.


American Buffalo: Spirit of a Nation
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/buffalo/index.html
Website accompanying the 1998 PBS Nature segment of the same name. Includes an overview of the near extinction of the American bison and of current efforts to restore buffalo herd numbers and habitats. Teacher's guide, children's activities, and a page of valuable online and print resources at http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/buffalo/resc.html.


The American Bison
http://www.lewis-clark.org/bison
A collection of primary sources and lectures on the American bison in the 19th and 20th centuries from the site Rediscovering Lewis and Clark (which would benefit from a site map and the addition of home page explanations). Among the subsections are
--"Bison in Decline" [http://www.lewis-clark.org/bison/bison_bison.htm] which presents nine interviews (video clips with full text of each) with Dan Flores, professor of Western history at the University of Montana-Missoula.

--"Icon" [http://www.lewis-clark.org/bison/bison_bison.htm] which includes 12 brief sections on assorted topics from commercial bison farming to Meriwether Lewis's description of Charbonneau's recipe for buffalo sausage. (The section titles do not adequately identify their topics. For instance, "Mind Reading" presents an excerpt from William Hornaday's The Minds and Manners of Wild Animals: A Book of Personal Observations.)

Buffalo and Native Americans in North America
http://www.nwf.org/nwf/buffalo/bisback.html
A brief, clear overview from the National Wildlife Federation.


A Critical Bibliography on North American Indians for K-12: Plains Indians http://nmnhwww.si.edu/anthro/outreach/Indbibl/bibplain.html
Bibliography of over 200 books divided by tribal group, and further by fiction and non-fiction titles. A search on the term "buffalo" will identify numerous sources on the buffalo's significance in Plains Indians' beliefs and ritual. The site includes a general bibliography and nine other region-based bibliographies (introduction page at http://nmnhwww.si.edu/anthro/outreach/Indbibl/bibintro.html). From the Smithsonian Institution Anthropology Outreach Office.


Native American Spirituality
http://religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/nrms/naspirit.html
Searching through this site for "buffalo" will give one an introduction to the role of the buffalo in Native American beliefs and ritual; one should first, however, skim the entire page, for it presents a solid scholarly overview of Native American religion. From the Religious Movements Homepage at the University of Virginia.


Buffalo Hunting in the Alberta [Canada] Plains
http://www.pma.edmonton.ab.ca/human/archaeo/aspects/buffalo.htm
Brief illustrated history from the Provincial Museum of Alberta.


Native American Uses of the Bison
http://www.museum.state.il.us/mic_home/schools95/hamilton/project/research_topic.html
A listing of buffalo parts and the clothing, tools, food, ritual items, etc. produced from each, often linked to images of sample items in the collection of the Illinois State Museum; done as an elementary class project in the Museum in the Classroom program of the Illinois State Museum and the Brookfield Zoo.


"The Symbolic Role of Animals in the Plains Indian Sun Dance"
http://www.psyeta.org/sa/sa1.1/lawrence.html
Scholarly paper which discusses the buffalo as a ritual symbol in the Sun Dance. By Elizabeth Atwood Lawrence (Professor Emerita, Center for Animals and Public Policy, Department of Environmental and Population Health, Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine) in Society & Animals: Social Scientific Studies of the Human Experience of Other Animals, Winter 1993 (Vol. I, No. 1).


Buffalo Jumps
Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump, near Alberta, Canada. Designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1981.
         --History, legend, archeological excavations, and more from the
            University of Alberta Department of Archeology.
            http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/faculties/SS/ARKY/hsi/hsi.html
         --Photographs of the archeological excavations from Canada Digital Collections -
            see images 17, 18, 20, 22, 40-42.
            http://collections.ic.gc.ca/alberta/archaeology/arch_images.html
         --Interpretative Center website
            http://www.head-smashed-in.com
         --Calgary Reporter article on the site (no date).
            http://www.calexplorer.com/bcbill.html
         --UNESCO information page on the site
            http://www.unesco.org/whc/sites/158.htm

Vore Buffalo Jump, near Sundance, Wyoming
http://www.SundanceWyoming.com/Vore.htm
Archeological site maintained by the University of Wyoming.

"The Buffalo Jump," from the journals of Lewis and Clark http://www.lewis-clark.org/bison/bison_jour-8.htm
Journal entry of May 29, 1805, in which Meriwether Lewis describes viewing a "vast many mangled carcases of Buffalow" and briefly explains the role of the disguised (and fleet-footed) Indian decoy who leads the buffalo to the precipice. On the site Rediscovering Lewis and Clark.

"Ask Dr. Dig": Buffalo Jump
http://dig.archaeology.org/drdig/native/8.html
Definition of a buffalo jump for younger learners. From the Archeological Institute of America.

"Buffalo Bill" Cody, from the PBS site The West
--Brief biography
   http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/wpages/wpgs400/w403_cod.htm
--Full text of Cody's autobiography, The Life and Adventures of Buffalo Bill, 1917
   http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/wpages/wpgs670/w67bbauto/w67bb0.htm

"Historians revisit slaughter on the Plains," The New York Times, Nov. 16, 1999.
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/students/pop/111699sci-animal-buffalo.html
A summary of the current re-examination by historians of the eradication of the buffalo in the American West, focusing on the roles of Native American hunters and white hide hunters.


George Catlin (1796-1872): Paintings of Native Americans
George Catlin collection in the National Gallery of Art
         --The Catlin collection
            To view the extensive collection of Catlin paintings in the National Gallery
            of Art, go to http://www.nga.gov/search/search.htm, enter "Catlin" in box
             "Artist's Last Name" and click "images only" before clicking "Search."
         --For kids: a brief online exhibition with activities for younger students
             http://www.nga.gov/kids/catlin/catlin1.html

George Catlin collection in the Smithsonian American Art Museum
To view the extensive collection of Catlin paintings in the Smithsonian American Art Museum, go to http://americanart.si.edu, click "Search" in the top line, then click "Search for artists in our collection," then enter "Catlin" in the box "Artist Last Name," click either "Short Information" or "Long Information," then click "Perform Search."

"Portraits on the Plains," Smithsonian, May 2000
http://www.smithsonianmag.si.edu/smithsonian/issues00/may00/object_may00.html
Article on Catlin's travels and paintings in the American West, with several images.

"George Catlin: First artist of the Upper Missouri"
http://www.bismarcktribune.com/tribwebpage/features/lewisclark/2000/catlin.html A short biography of Catlin with excerpts from his writings (plus one image); from the Bismarck Tribune, 2000.

George Catlin
http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/print/CC/fca94.html
Longer biography (with no images) from the Handbook of Texas Online from the Texas State Historical Association.

Bison
http://www.nps.gov/wica/bison.htm
Basic information on the bison, the animal, with photos and a brief audio clip of a buffalo call. On the National Park Service/Wind Cave National Park website.


Bison Resources from the Yellowstone National Park website
Bison http://www.nps.gov/yell/nature/animals/bison/bison.html
A general introduction to bison and the park's herd.

Bison: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions http://www.nps.gov/yell/nature/animals/bison/bisonqa.html
Ten Q&A's on the park's bison herd, its size, and the danger of brucellosis, a bacterial disease carried by bison.

"Why the buffalo can't roam"
http://www.nps.gov/yell/nature/northernrange/natreg/buffalo.html
Park statement on the optimal size of its bison herd, an issue that pits wildlife preservationists against cattle ranchers.

Yellowstone's Buffalo Herd: "The song doesn't say 'give me a home where we shoot buffalo that roam.'"
http://www.nrdc.org/wildlife/animals/nbison.asp
Position of the Natural Resources Defense Council (in late 1998) on the bison management policies of Yellowstone National Park, especially the legal shooting of bison that wander beyond the park boundaries.


Yellowstone Wildlife: Bison
http://www.yellowstone.net/wildlife/bison.htm
A 40-second video clip of bison in Yellowstone National Park, preceding a position statement on the bison management policies of the park. From the commercial site yellowstone.net.


Bison Studies Bibliography
http://www.montana.edu/~wwwcbs/books.html
A bibliography of 43 titles from the Center for Bison Studies of Montana State University - Bozeman.




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