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Toolbox: The Making of African American Identity: Volume II, 1865-1917

Image Credits
Title/Person Description Repository/Owner
Adams, Louisa, North Carolina, mid 1930s WPA photograph taken to accompany narrative Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, digital ID: mesnp 111001b; in online collection Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers’ Project, 1936-1938.
African American bank founders at the Metropolitan Bank, Ocala, Florida, 1914 Photoprint Reproduced by permission of the Florida State Archives Photograph Collection, Image No: Rc03171a.
African American business enterprises, Richmond, Virginia, ca. 1907 Four photographs from Souvenir Views: Negro Enterprises & Residences, Richmond, Va., 1907, Created/published: Richmond, D. A. Ferguson, 1907 Library of Congress, General Collections,  Call No. F234.R5 S66; in online collection The Capital and the Bay: Narratives of Washington and the Chesapeake Bay Region, ca. 1600-1925.
African American congregation, posed outside a church (?), Georgia, 1899 or 1900 Photographic print; in album (disbound): Negro life in Georgia, U.S.A., compiled and prepared by W.E.B. Du Bois, v. 3, no. 275 Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Daniel Murray Collection.
LC-USZ62-114267.
African American family (home page image), Minnie and Oscar Jackson and their daughters, Minnie (left) and Cecelia, ca. 1920 (detail) Photographer: Minnie McKee Reproduced by permission of the Carolina Room, The Public Library of Charlotte and Mecklenburg Library; in online exhibition An African American Album: The Black Experience in Charlotte and Mecklenburg County [NC] (originally published in book form).
African American family, five members, in cotton field, Gainesville, Florida, ca. 1910 Photoprint Reproduced by permission of the Florida State Archives Photograph Collection. Image Number Rc13668.
African American family, five members, seated in outdoor setting, Georgia, 1899-1900 Photographic print: gelatin silver; in Du Bois collection of photographs for the 1900 Paris Exposition Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Daniel Murray Collection. LC-USZ62-69913.
African American men, Charlottesville area, Virginia, 1913


Homer Ragland
Felix Bland
Rev. G. O. Seay
Photographs




Mon., December 29, 1913
Wed., December 31, 1913
Wed., December 24, 1913
Reproduced by permission of the University of Virginia Library, Special Collections, Holsinger Studio Collection.

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African American officers of the 366th Infantry, 1917-ca. 1919 [African American] Officers of 366th Infantry Back on Aquitania. These officers, all of whom have been returned with their troops on the Aquitania. Left to right: Lieutenant C.L. Abbot, South Dakota; Captain Joseph L. Lowe, Pacific Grove, California; Lieutenant A.R. Fisher, Lyles, Indiana, winner of Distinguished Service Cross; Captain E. White, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. National Archives, Records of the War Department General and Special Staffs, 1860 – 1952. ARC Identifier: 533490.
African American Senators and Representatives, 41st and 42nd Congress, 1872 Lithograph. New York:  Published by Currier & Ives, 1872. Title: "The first colored senator and representatives—in the 41st and 42nd Congress of the United States." Group portrait of African American legislators: Robert C. De Large, Jefferson H. Long, H.R. Revels, Benj. S. Turner, Josiah T. Walls, Joseph H. Rainy, and R. Brown Elliot. Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-USZC2-2325.
African American students, "Highest grade," Shelby County Training School, Woodstock, Shelby County, Tennessee, 1917 Photograph Reproduced by permission of the University of Virginia Library, Special Collections, Jackson Davis Collection (#1383).
African American woman, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing slightly left, 1899 or 1900 Photographic print: gelatin silver; in Du Bois collection of photographs for the 1900 Paris Exposition Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Daniel Murray Collection, LC-USZ62-124652.
A[frican] M[ethodist]
E[piscopal] Church,
Bishops of, 1876
Lithograph, Boston: J.H. Daniels, 1876. Repository note: "Portraits of Richard Allen and other African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) bishops, surrounded by scenes including Wilberforce University, Payne Institute, missionaries in Haiti, and the A.M.E. church book depository in Philadelphia." Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-USZC4-6170. Original copyright by John H. W. Burley. 
A[frican] M[ethodist]
E[piscopal] Church Review
, logo, 1890
From issue of January 1890, Vol. 6, No. 3 Ohio Historical Center Archives, Ohio Historical Society; in online collection The African-American Experience in Ohio, 1850-1920, and in American Memory, Library of Congress. Permission pending.
Anshutz, Thomas P. (American, 1851-1912), The Way They Live, 1879 Oil on canvas, 24 x 17 in. (61 x 43.2 cm.) Reproduced by permission of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Morris K. Jesup Fund, 1940 (40.40). Photograph ©1985 The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Are You With Us?, pamphlet, 1918
Published by the Ohio Federation for Uplift among Colored People
Ohio Historical Center Archives, Ohio Historical Society, Pamphlet Collection, PA 226-32; in online collection The African-American Experience in Ohio, 1850-1920, and in American Memory, Library of Congress. Permission pending.
Bannister, Edward Mitchell (1828-1901), Newspaper Boy, 1869
Oil on canvas, 30 1/8 x 25 in.
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Jack Hafif and Frederick Weingeroff, 1983.95.85. Due diligence has been exercised by the National Humanities Center to obtain reproduction permission.
Baylor, "Uncle" Washington
(1) at Home Makers exhibit, Carolina County, Virginia, August 1913
(2) with Superintendent, Caroline County, Virginia, August 1913
Photographs Reproduced by permission of the University of Virginia Library, Special Collections, Jackson Davis Collection, #0115 and #L1183.
Bethel A[frican] M[ethodist] E[piscopal] Church, Baltimore, interior, ca. 1845 Print (no date recorded on shelflist card). Title: "The Presentation of a Gold Snuff Box to the Rev. R.T. Brecken-ridge. In Bethel Church, by Rev. Darius Stokes in behalf of the colored people of Baltimore as a gift of gratitude. A.D. Decr 18th 1845." Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-22957.
Birth of a Nation, 1915, film by D. W. Griffith, images (4) Single-frame images from online videoclips Reproduced by permission of Dr. Kevin Graves, Dept. of Drama and Communications, University of New Orleans; in online collection Silent Film Reference.
Bobbitt, Henry, North Carolina, mid 1930s WPA photograph taken to accompany narrative Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, digital ID: mesnp 111120; in online collection Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers’ Project, 1936-1938.
Bonner, Siney, Alabama, mid 1930s WPA photograph taken to accompany narrative Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, digital ID: mesnp 010039; in online collection Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers’ Project, 1936-1938.  
"Brave Colored Artilleryman," 1890 Illustration in Edward Johnson, A School History of the Negro Race in America, 1890/1911, artist unidentified In the public domain; digital image produced by the National Humanities Center.
Brown, Henry Billings, U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice (1891-1906), between 1880 and 1910(?) Photographic print Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, George Grantham Bain Collection, LC-USZ62-90766.
Buddy Bolden’s band, probably New Orleans, ca. 1900 Photograph Frank Driggs Collection/Archive Photos. Permission pending.
Cake walk performed by Americus Quartet, Philadelphia, 1900 Frame from film produced by the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, copyright 1903 (filmed in Philadelphia 18 Sept. 1900). Library of Congress, Paper Print Collection, digital ID varsmp 0377; in online collection The American Variety Stage.
Cake walk sheet music covers (two), 1900, 1905 (1) "Jolly Pickanninies Cake Walk and Two Step," by E. Rueffer, New York, 1905
(2)"Looney Coons Cake Walk & Two Step," by John T. Hall, New York, 1900
Reproduced by permission of Duke University, Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, (1) Music B290 and (2) Music B850; in online collection Historic American Sheet Music, 1850-1920
and in American Memory, Library of Congress. Permission pending.
Canning exhibit, Virginia, 1913, see "Home Makers Clubs" below

Cemetery cleaning, Charles City County, Virginia, 1912 Photograph Reproduced by permission of the University of Virginia Library, Special Collections, Jackson Davis Collection (#L1187).
Chesnutt, Charles W., studio portrait, n.d. Photograph Reproduced by permission of Dr. Beverly Miller, Fayetteville State University (North Carolina); in online exhibition The Chesnutt Women.
Chesnutt, Charles W., The Wife of His Youth, And Other Stories of the Color Line, 1899, frontispiece Houghton, Mifflin and Company In the public domain; digital image produced by the National Humanities Center.
"Colored Moving Pictures," film poster, 1916, see Realization of a Negro’s Ambition below

"Colored" schools, Virginia, 1911-ca. 1915;


(1) "Colored" school that had been repaired and whitewashed by the students, Mountain Road, Henrico County, Virginia, 1911


(2) "Colored" school, new two-room graded school and members of governor’s visiting party, Baylorsville, Caroline County, Virginia, 1914

(3) "Colored" school with addition costing $10,000, with an "assembly room, ventilating systems, water, electric lights, shower and baths," Harrisonburg, Rockingham County, Virginia, n.d. (after 1911, probably before 1915)
Photographs




Comments: "Virginia Randolph in doorway of her school. (slide). A teacher who has mastered her environment. Building white washed- pupils made repairs- planted out flowers etc."

Comments: "New two room graded school Colored, Governer’s Party"




Comments: "Old Colored school and new Colored High School. Addition costing $10,000 opened September 27, 1911. Assembly room,ventilating system, water,electric lights, shower and baths."
Reproduced by permission of the University of Virginia Library, Special Collections, Jackson Davis Collection.

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Children’s Club cleaning grounds, Keswick, Albemarle County, Virginia, 1913 Photograph Reproduced by permission of the University of Virginia Library, Special Collections, Jackson Davis Collection, #0007.
Contending Forces, by Pauline Elizabeth Hopkins, 1900, book cover
Book cover in the public domain; digital image produced by the National Humanities Center.
Cook, George or Huestis:
(1) "Man with Banjo," 1893
(2) "Boys with Banjo," 1880s



Photograph, glass plate negative
Photograph, film negative
Reproduced by permission of the Valentine Richmond History Center, Negatives #1474 and #1401; in online collection: Through the Lens of Time: Images of African Americans from the Cook Collection of Photographs.
Crummell, Rev. Alexander Illustration in Rev. William J. Simmons, Men of Mark: Eminent, Progressive and Rising. Cleveland, Ohio: Geo. M. Rewell, 1887, p. 530 Reproduced by permission of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries, in online collection Documenting the American South.
Du Bois, W. E. B., between 1920 and 1930 Photographic print Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Visual Materials from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Records, LC-USZ62-36176.
Dunbar, Paul Laurence, ca. 1890 Photograph; three-fourths figure, standing portrait Reproduced by permission of the Dayton [Ohio] Metro Library.
Dunbar-Nelson, Alice Photograph in G. F. Richings, Evidences of Progress among Colored People, Philadelphia: G. S. Ferguson, 1902, p. 419 [Miss Alice Ruth Moore] Reproduced by permission of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries, in online collection Documenting the American South.
End-of-section devices, 1890 Flourishes in Edward Johnson, A School History of the Negro Race in America, 1890/1911, artist unidentified In the public domain; digital images produced by the National Humanities Center.
Equal Suffrage: Address from the Colored Citizens of Norfolk, Va. . . . , 1865, frontispiece
In the public domain; digital image produced by the National Humanities Center.
"Escaped slaves arriving in Wilmington, N.C." 1865 In Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, 29 April 1865 Reproduced by permission of the North Carolina Collection, Photographic Archives, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries, Neg. 100-127. FP1-65-W74-C582w-A258.
"Fort Wagner," 1890 Illustration in Edward Johnson, A School History of the Negro Race in America, 1890/1911, artist unidentified In the public domain; digital image produced by the National Humanities Center.
Grandmother and granddaughter, both named Alis, studio portrait, unidentified date [1910s] Silver gelatin print Creator: unidentified

Reproduced by permission of the New York Public Library, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Photographs & Prints Division, Clarence Cameron White Photograph Collection, digital ID: 01scccw.jpg; in online exhibition Digital Schomburg: Images of African Americans from the 19th Century.
Harlan, John Marshall, U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice (1877-1911), 30 Nov. 1907 Photographic print by Bain News Service Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, George Grantham Bain Collection, LC-USZ62-88501.
"Ho for Kansas!," handbill, 1878 (detail) Handbill produced by Benjamin Singleton, Nashville, Tennessee, 18 March 1878. "Ho for Kansas! Brethren, Friends, & Fellow Citizens: I feel thankful to inform you that the real estate and Homestead Association, will leave here the 15th of April, 1878, In pursuit of Homes in the Southwestern Lands of  America . . . ," Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Historic American Building Survey Field Records, Call No: HABS FN-6 KS-49-14 [P&P].
Home Makers Clubs, Virginia, 1911-1915 



(1) Canning exhibit of the Halifax County Home Garden Association, in the store of James and Sugg, South Boston, Halifax County, Virginia, Summer 1911

(2) Boy with baskets of potatoes, Caroline County, Virginia, n.d., (prob. 1915)

(3) Girl and inspector (?) in vegetable garden, Charles City County, Virginia, n.d. (probably 1915)

(4) Girl in vegetable garden holding dish of tomatoes,  Caroline County, Virginia, September 1915
Photographs




Comments: "Exhibit of the Halifax County Home Garden Association. Canning of Negro girls in store of James and Sugg (Colored) South Boston"



Comments: "A boy member of Home Makers Club. He grew potatoes under directions."


Comments: "Gardens of Home Makers Club on Inspection Trip"



Comments: "Bernice Wright, Member Home Makers Club with dish of tomatoes grown in her garden."
Reproduced by permission of the University of Virginia Library, Special Collections, Jackson Davis Collection.

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Homer, Winslow (American, 1836-1910), Untitled(?), 1865 and 1866 [known as At the Cabin Door, Captured Liberators, and Near Andersonville] Oil on canvas, 58.4 x 45.7 cm. Reproduced by permission of the Newark Museum, Newark, New Jersey. The Collection of the Newark Museum. 66.354. Gift of Mrs. Hannah Corbin Carter; Horace K. Corbin, Jr.; Robert S. Corbin; William D. Corbin; and Mrs. Clementine Corbin Day in memory of their parents, Hannah Stockton Corbin and Horace Kellogg Corbin, 1966.
Homer, Winslow (American, 1836-1910), The Gulf Stream, 1899 Oil on canvas, 28 1/8 x 49 1/8 in. (71.4 x 124.8 cm) Reproduced by permission of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Catharine Lorillard Wolfe Collection, Wolfe Fund, 1906. (06.1234). Photograph ©1995 The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Homer, Winslow (American, 1836-1910), Visit from the Old Mistress, 1876  Oil on canvas, 18 x 24 in. Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC. Gift of William T. Evans. 1909.7.28. Due diligence has been exercised by the National Humanities Center to obtain reproduction permission.
Horton, George Moses, Naked Genius, 1865, frontispiece (detail)
Chapel Hill Historical Society, Chapel Hill, NC. Due diligence has been exercised by the National Humanities Center to obtain reproduction permission.
"Jack and Abby," studio portrait of an elderly couple, Savannah, Georgia, 187-? Stereograph created by O. Pierre Havens Reproduced by permission of the New York Public Library, Prints & Photographs Division, Miriam & Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Robert N. Dennis Collection of Stereoscopic Views, digital ID: 02092136.jpg; in online exhibition Digital Schomburg: Images of African Americans from the 19th Century.
Johnson, Eastman, Old Kentucky Home - Life in the South (Negro Life at the South), 1859 Oil on linen 36 3/15 x 45 1/2 in.; frame: 51 x 61 x 5 in.

Reproduced by permission of The New-York Historical Society. Accession #S-225.
Johnson, Fenton, portrait, right hand at head, n.d. Frontispiece photograph in Fenton Johnson, Visions of the Dusk, orig. published 1915; reprinted by Books for Libraries Press, Freeport, NY, 1971. Digital image scanned from reprint published by Books for Libraries Press, Freeport, NY. The National Humanities Center has exercised due diligence in attempting to locate a current copyright owner of the 1971 publication.
Johnson, Jack, standing in ring, location unknown, between 1900 and 1915 Photographic print Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, George Grantham Bain Collection, LC-USZ6-1823.
Johnson, James Weldon, between 1910 and 1930 Photographic print Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Visual Materials from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Records, LC-USZ62-36619.
Johnston, Frances Benjamin, photographs of Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Alabama, 1902 Photographic prints



1) History Class
2) Laboratory
3) Print Shop
4) Workshop
5) Barrel Furniture
6) Mattress Making
Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Frances Benjamin Johnston Collection.

LC-USZ62-64712
LC-USZ62-2248
LC-USZ62-24346
LC-USZ62-24345
LC-USZ62-24333
LC-USZ62-24334
Kingsland, James Lyons, and Kingsland, Abraham, stepbrothers, 1900, photographs as displayed in photograph album Silver gelatin prints
Creator: unidentified

Labels:
"James Lyons Kingsland, 1st. taken December 16, 1900"

"Abrahm Leon Kingsland, Step-brother, taken June 2, 1900 at Ironsides School, Bordentown, N.J."
Reproduced by permission of the New York Public Library, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Photographs & Prints Division, Harry A. Williamson Photograph Collection, digital ID: 04schaw.jpg; in online exhibition Digital Schomburg: Images of African Americans from the 19th Century.
Lewis, Edmonia (1843–d. after 1911), Forever Free, 1867 Marble sculpture, 41¼ x 11 x 17 in., exhibited at the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Reproduced by permission of the Howard University Art Collection, Washington, DC.
Liberia, map of, entitled "North west part of Montserrado County, Liberia, in ten miles square" 18—(detail) Pen-and-ink and watercolor. Sheets taped together to form irregular shape.
Library of Congress, Geography & Map Division, Call No: G8883.M6 18-- .N6 ACS 21.
Lincoln, Abraham, portrait, seated, ca. 1860-1865 (detail) Photographed by Mathew Brady or associate National Archives, ARC Identifier 527722.
Lynching of four men, Sabine County, Texas, 15 June 1908 Photograph on postcard with poem entitled "The Dogwood Tree," published by Harkrider Drug Co., Center, Texas, 1908 Copyright status undetermined. Permission pending.
"Lynching," headline, Cleveland Gazette, 12 March 1904 (detail)
Ohio Historical Center Archives, Ohio Historical Society, Newspaper Roll #4433, vol. 21, no. 32, p. 1; in online collection The African-American Experience in Ohio, 1850-1920, and in American Memory, Library of Congress. Permission pending.
National Association of  Colored Women’s Clubs, logo, late 19th century

"National Negro Business League," headline, Cleveland Journal, 10 Sept. 1904
Ohio Historical Center Archives, Ohio Historical Society, Newspaper Roll #33053, vol. 2, no. 26, p. 1;  in online collection The African-American Experience in Ohio, 1850-1920, and in American Memory, Library of Congress. Permission pending.
"Negro Rule," The [Raleigh, N.C.] News and Observer, cartoon, 4 July 1900
Digital image courtesy of The History Project, University of California, Davis.
"Nicodemus and His Banjo," cake-walk march & two step, sheet music cover (detail), 1899 Sheet music cover by E. Ascher. New York: Standard Music Company (Grasmuk & Schott), 1899 Reproduced by permission of Duke University, Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library. Call No: Music B-97; in online collection Historic American Sheet Music, 1850-1920 and in American Memory, Library of Congress.
"Ohio's Anti-Lynching Law," entire article, Cleveland Gazette, 8 June 1901    Ohio Historical Center Archives, Ohio Historical Society, Newspaper Roll #4432, vol. 18, no. 44, p. 1; in online collection The African-American Experience in Ohio, 1850-1920, and in American Memory, Library of Congress. Permission pending.
"The Old Plantation," artist unknown, ca. 1800 Watercolor on paper Reproduced by permission of the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Williamsburg, Virginia, Acc. #1935.301.3
"Our Women’s Clubs," Cleveland Journal, 12 Sept. 1903 Digital image of newspaper article Ohio Historical Center Archives, Ohio Historical Society, Newspaper Roll #33053, vol. 1, no. 26,  p. 2; in online collection The African-American Experience in Ohio, 1850-1920, and in American Memory, Library of Congress. Permission pending.
"Plantation Banjo Player," artist unknown, ca. 1875 Lithograph Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-USZC4-2814.
"Primrose & West’s Big Minstrels / Our Great Champion Cake Walk Open to All Comers," 1896 Lithograph/poster, Strobridge Lith. Co., Cincinnati, New York Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-USZC2-1773.
Proceedings of the Semi-Centenary Celebration of the African Methodist Episcopal Church of Cincinnati, . . . 1874, frontispiece Cincinnati: H. Watkin, printer, 1874 Library of Congress, Call No: E449 .D16 Vol. D, No, 2; in online collection African American Perspectives: Pamphlets from the Daniel A. P. Murray Collection, 1818-1907.
The Race Problem: Great Speech of Frederick Douglass. . ., 1890, frontispiece
Library of Congress, Call No: E185.61 .D733; in online collection African American Perspectives: Pamphlets from the Daniel A. P. Murray Collection, 1818-1907.
"Race Problem," Cleveland Journal, 14 Nov. 1903 (detail)
Historical Center Archives, Ohio Historical Society, Newspaper Roll #33053, vol. 1, no. 35, p. 1; in online collection The African-American Experience in Ohio, 1850-1920, and in American Memory, Library of Congress. Permission pending.
Realization of a Negro’s Ambition, film poster, 1916
Reproduced by permission of Larry Richards, creator of the online exhibition A Cinema Apart.
Shaw University, Raleigh, NC,  1890 Illustration in Edward Johnson, A School History of the Negro Race in America, 1890/1911, artist unidentified In the public domain; digital image produced by the National Humanities Center.
Silent Protest parade, Fifth Avenue, New York City, 28 July 1917 Two photographs:
(1) Silent Protest parade on Fifth Avenue, New York City, July 28, 1917, in response to the East St. Louis race riot (primarily men in photo)
(2) Children marching in "Silent Protest" parade (original in Brownies Book. New York, Jan. 1920, vol. 1)
Reproduced by permission of the New York Public Library, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture.
(1) CN-86-0220
(2) SC-CN-02-106

Smith, Charles, Senior, and daughter Josephine C. Smith, Apa[lachicola?], Florida., 13 April 1889 Silver gelatin print Creator: Lyon
Reproduced by permission of the New York Public Library, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Photographs & Prints Division, Shivery Family Photograph Collection, digital ID: 05scshf.jpg; in online exhibition Digital Schomburg: Images of African Americans from the 19th Century.
Smith, Harry C., editor of the Cleveland Gazette, ca. 1894 Photograph Ohio Historical Center Archives, Ohio Historical Society, Ohio House of Representatives Photograph Collection, Call No. P206; in online collection The African-American Experience in Ohio, 1850-1920, and in American Memory, Library of Congress. Permission pending.
Streetcar, Ballast Point, Tampa, Florida, 1910 Photoprint Reproduced by permission of the Florida State Archives Photograph Collection, Image Number Rc13556.
Tanner, Henry Ossawa (American, 1859-1937), The Banjo Lesson, 1893 Oil on canvas, 49 x 35½ in. Reproduced by permission of the Hampton University Museum, Hampton, Virginia.
"This is the woman, and I am the man," illustration, 1899 Illustrator: Clyde De Land. Illustration opposite Table of Contents in Chesnutt, The Wife of His Youth, And Other Stories of the Color Line, 1899 In the public domain; digital image produced by the National Humanities Center.
Trainman signalling from a "Jim Crow" coach, St. Augustine, Florida, January 1943 Photographer: Gordon Parks Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-USW3- 014799-E [P&P]; in online collection Farm Security Administration – Office of War Information Photograph Collection.
Turner, Rev. Henry M., portrait illustration, ca. 1895 Illustration in J. W. E. Bowen, ed., Africa and the American Negro: Addresses and Proceedings of the Congress on Africa . . . , December 13-15, 1895. Atlanta: Gammon Theological Seminary, 1896 Reproduced by permission of The University of North Carolina Libraries, in online collection Documenting the American South.
Warrick Fuller, Meta, portrait, n.d. Photograph in Benjamin Griffith Brawley, Women of Achievement: Written for The Fireside Schools under the Auspices of the Woman's American Baptist Home Mission Society. [Chicago, Ill.]: Woman's American Baptist Home Mission Society, 1919 Reproduced by permission of The University of North Carolina Libraries, in online collection Documenting the American South.
Warrick Fuller, Meta, Ethiopia Awakening, 1914 Bronze sculpture, 67x16x10"
Reproduced by permission of The New York Public Library, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture (Astor, Lennox and Tilden Foundations).
Washington, Booker T., entitled "An Early Portrait of Booker T. Washington" Photograph in Washington, Up from Slavery: An Autobiography, Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1901 Reproduced by permission of The University of North Carolina Libraries, in online collection Documenting the American South.
Washington, Booker T., seated, with right hand at head, between 1890 and 1900 (detail) Photographic print; three-quarter length portrait, seated, facing slightly left, holding newspaper; stamp on mount: Schumacher, 107 N. Spring St., Los Angeles, CA; photograph possibly by Schumacher Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Booker T. Washington Collection, LC-USZ62-119897.
Washington, Booker T., standing on a stage in Mound Bayou, Mississippi, 1912 (detail) Photographic print Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Booker T. Washington Collection, LC-USZ62-120527.
Waud, Alfred R., The First Vote, wood engraving, 1867 Illustration in Harper’s Weekly, 16 November 1867, p. 721 Courtesy of HarpWeek.com.
"Women’s Clubs," Cleveland Journal, 6 August 1904 Digital image of newspaper article Ohio Historical Center Archives, Ohio Historical Society, Newspaper Roll #33053, vol. 2, no. 21, p. 1;  in online collection The African-American Experience in Ohio, 1850-1920, and in American Memory, Library of Congress. Permission pending.
Women’s League of Newport, Rhode Island, Executive Board, 1899? Photographic print: gelatin silver; in Du Bois collection of photographs for the 1900 Paris Exposition Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Daniel Murray Collection. LC-USZ62-120387.



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Toolbox: The Making of African American Identity: Volume II, 1865-1917
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