|NHC Home TeacherServe Nature Transformed Native Americans Essay:|
|The Effects of Removal on American Indian Tribes|
Clara Sue Kidwell, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
©National Humanities Center
|Brummett Echohawk (Pawnee artist), "Trail of Tears," 1957.||Courtesy of Brummett Echohawk, Tulsa, Oklahoma, and the Thomas Gilcrease Institute of American History and Art, Tulsa, Oklahoma (Gilcrease Museum).|
|Norma Howard (Choctaw artist), "Choctaw Village," watercolor, ca. 1998. Notes from ChoctawWeb: "Choctaw Village" depicts a Choctaw family living around the Mississippi period. The corn was the main source of food, along with a summer garden, and a granary was set high on a post for the storage of vegetables. The huts were made from canes and covered with mud. This painting won "Best of Division" and "Best Traditional" at the 1998 Santa Fe Indian Market.||Courtesy of Norma Howard, Stigler, Oklahoma.|
|Orders, dated May 17, 1838, pertaining to the removal of the Cherokee Indians remaining in North Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee and Alabama, to territory west of the Mississippi, according to the terms of the New Echota Treaty of 1835. Notes from repository: The orders originated with Major General Winfield Scott at the Cherokee in Tennessee and outline the military personnel involved in the emigration and the procedures to be followed. Scott's signature appears on the orders and they are designated to be read to each military company participating in the removal.||Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, The University of Georgia Libraries. Collection: Captain Isaac Vincent Papers.|
Digital image from GALILEO: Georgia Library Learning Online / Digital Library of Georgia / Collection: Native American Documents 1730-1842. Document # IVP001.
|Copy of military orders for Col. Nathan C. Barnett, or the Commanding Officer of the 24th Regiment, directing the removal of the Cherokee Indians from Georgia. Notes from repository: The orders, endorsed by Miller Grieve, Aid de camp, specify that the companies will march to New Echota, (Cass County, Georgia.) to receive their instructions. A copy of a communication which was received by the Governor from Gen. Winfield Scott, is attached to these orders, dated April 19, 1838.||Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, The University of Georgia Libraries. Collection: Captain Isaac Vincent Papers.|
Digital image from GALILEO: Georgia Library Learning Online / Digital Library of Georgia / Collection: Native American Documents 1730-1842. Document # IVP009.
|Notice from General Nathaniel Smith, Superintendent of Cherokee emigration, to the Cherokee people, dated January 20, 1838. Notes from repository: Smith informs the Cherokees that steam boats will be available for their transportation to a territory west of the Mississippi River, but emigrants may choose the overland route as well. He reminds the Cherokees of the sentiments of the President on the removal issue and warns them to remove early or face military force.||The Tennessee State Library and Archives, Nashville, Tennessee. Collection: State Library Cherokee Collection.|
Digital image from GALILEO: Georgia Library Learning Online / Digital Library of Georgia / Collection: Native American Documents 1730-1842. Document # CH082.
|Painting depicting a Cherokee farmstead in the mid 18th century, by Carlyle Urello. Notes from repository: This photograph is of a painting of a mid 18th century Cherokee farmstead. The painting was based on historic descriptions and archaeological excavations from the Lower Little Tennessee River Valley, conducted by the University of Tennessee 1967-1982. Excavations of Overhill Cherokee Villages were conducted by the University of Tennessee between 1967 and 1983 as part of the Tellico Archaeological Project. Excavations continued until 1983, and laboratory studies and report preparation continued until 1987. The excavations were conducted in anticipation of the flooding of the Lower Little Tennessee River Valley, in eastern Tennessee, by the Tellico Dam Reservoir. The excavations were conducted under contract with the National Park Service and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA).||Frank H. McClung Museum, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Painting by Carlyle Urello.|
Digital image from GALILEO: Georgia Library Learning Online / Digital Library of Georgia / Collection: Native American Documents 1730-1842. Document # MM008.
|United States map (color shaded relief with state boundaries), cropped. [Information on Indian tribal lands, c. 1835, added by TeacherServe]||Color Landform Atlas of the United States. Ray Sterner, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory.|
|Nanih Waiya Indian mound, Mississippi, n.d.||Digital image: Winston County Chamber of Commerce, Mississippi.|
|North Georgia mountain lake (unidentified), n.d.||Georgia Department of Industry, Trade & Tourism, Image # B0092.|
|Etowah River, near the Coosa River, Alabama, n.d.||Courtesy of Fred Duncan, Striper-Hybrid Guide Service.|
|Bankhead National Forest, 90 miles north of Birmingham, Alabama, May 1972.||National Archives / Environmental Protection Agency: Documerica Project. NWDNS-412-DA-3001.|
|Land warrant issued to Revolutionary War soldier Thomas Pearman for 100 acres of land for his service as a soldier in the Virginia Continental Line; issued 1784.||Courtesy of Chris Piereman and Keith Pearman.|
|Sorrows of the Seminoles, Banished from Florida, ca. 1835, no artist listed; photograph of the drawing.||Florida State Archives Photo Collection. AAM-3959.|
|Map of the Indian and Oklahoma Territories, Rand McNally & Co., 1892 (cropped).||Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division. American Memory: Map Collections: 1500-1999.|
G4021.E1 1892 .M2 TIL Vault.
|Oklahoma, shaded relief map (cropped).||Color Landform Atlas of the United States. Ray Sterner, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory.|
|Talladega National Forest, Cheaha State Park, northeast Alabama, n.d.||Courtesy of M. Lee Van Horn, Alabama Hiking Trail Society.|
|Beavers Bend, Oklahoma, 1994.||Courtesy of Charles S. Lewallen.|
|Panoramic view of a Native American (Kiowa or Apache) tepee camp by a river near Fort Sill, Indian Territory, between 1870 and 1880(?).||Denver Public Library, Western History Collection.|
|Receipts for the cure of most diseases incident to the human family / by the celebrated Indian doctor, John Mackentosh, of the Cherokee Nation, front cover, p. 3. Notes from repository: Published work of receipts, or recipes, for treatment of a variety of injuries and diseases, including whooping cough, snake bite, sprained ankles, cholic, and fever. The work was written by John Mackentosh, a Doctor of the Cherokee Nation, and appears to have been published in New York, 1827.||Special Collections Library, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville.|
Digital image from GALILEO: Georgia Library Learning Online / Digital Library of Georgia / Collection: Native American Documents 1730-1842. Document # JM001.
|Choctaw coal mine, "The #8 coal mine," Lehigh (Coal County), Oklahoma, ca. 1920.||Courtesy of Sandra Riley, whose father, Freddie Brice, worked in the mine and wrote a history of the Lehigh coal mine.
Digital image from website Coal County, Oklahoma, from David Wolfe.
|Valjean McCarty Hessing (Choctaw artist), Choctaw Immigrants, 1972. Notes from repository: Valjean Hessing's (Choctaw, 1934-) Choctaw Immigrants, a watercolor from the 1970s, depicts the removal of Choctaw Indians on the Trail of Tears. In the painting four women and two children are seen walking toward their new home in Indian Territory. On woman carries a small bundle of her most important possessions. The women are various skin colors indicating intermarriage between Native Americans, African slaves, and Euro-Americans. The women's expressions reveal their responses to the new life which awaits them: anger, sadness and acceptance.||Valjean McCarty Hessing and the Heard Museum, Phoenix, Arizona.|
|Donald Vann (Cherokee artist), Men with Broken Hearts, 1994.||Courtesy of Donald Vann, Native American Images.|
|Census of Cherokee families in Georgia, North Carolina, and Tennessee, probably from 1840 federal census. Phrase "died during the emigration" appears repeatedly in the remarks.||Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, The University of Georgia Libraries. Collection: William H. Thomas Papers.
Digital image from GALILEO: Georgia Library Learning Online / Digital Library of Georgia / Collection: Native American Documents 1730-1842. Document # WTP002.
|Delegates from 34 tribes in front of Creek Council House, Indian Territory, 1880.||National Archives
|Bird's eye map: Ardmore, Indian Territory, 1891 (detail). Drawn by T. M. Fowler. Key lists item #6 as Chickasaw Lumber Yard.||Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division. American Memory: Map Collections: 1500-1999. G4024.A843 1891 .F6 Vault.|
|Green Corn dance, southern Appalachians (?), possibly Cherokees in North Carolina, early 1900s.||Photograph by Frank G. Speck.|
|Green Corn dance, Choctaw Labor Day Festival, Tushka Homma, Oklahoma, September 2000.||Courtesy of the Bishinik; with thanks to Kim Eberl, webmaster, Choctaw Nation official site.|
|Grand Seal, Territory of Oklahoma, c. 1900. Latin motto: "Work Conquers All." Image from Arbor Day proclamation, Oklahoma Territory, 1903.||Library of Congress, Printed Ephemera Collection. American Memory: An American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera, Portfolio, Folder 6.|
|George Washington, "Message from the President of the United States, to the Chickasaw Nation," December 30, 1790.||Library of Congress. American Memory: The George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, 1741-1799.|
|John Garrett Ainsworth family and home, Choctaw Territory (Oklahoma), c. 1891. From the website of the Skullyville Cemetery, Choctaw Nation, Oklahoma: This picture is of the home of the John Garrett Ainsworth family, and includes his father David Spence Ainsworth (#92), the gentleman with the white beard in the center. John Garrett Ainsworth . . . is to his right and has a dark beard. The man wearing a hat and seated in the left foreground is David C. McCurtain, son of Green McCurtain and his first wife, later famous as a lawyer and judge. Others in the picture are members of the family. This log house consisted of two large rooms and a "dog trot" or breezeway between, and probably had a loft the length of the structure. The portion to the right may be of later construction. This house stood where the house of J. E. & Virginia McKinney now stands. The picture dates from ca. 1891, and is generously provided by a proud descendant of these people, Mrs. Elsie Lewis of Spiro.||Courtesy of Elsie Lewis, Spiro, Oklahoma, whose mother, grandmother, and uncle are in the photo. Ms. Lewis's mother is the young woman standing to the left (as seen in the photo) of the young woman leaning against the tree.|
Digital image from the website of the Skullyville Cemetery of the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma LeFlore County, Oklahoma; courtesy W. O. Jones, William Blanchard, and David Wolfe.
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