NHC Home TeacherServe Nature Transformed Native Americans Essay:

The Columbian Exchange: Plants, Animals, and Disease between the Old and New Worlds
Alfred W. Crosby, Professor Emeritus, University of Texas at Austin
©National Humanities Center

Works Cited

Borah, Woodrow W., and Sherburne F. Cook. The Aboriginal Population of Central Mexico on the Eve of the Spanish Conquest. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963.

Cook, Noble David. Born to Die: Disease and New World Conquest, 1492-1650. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Crosby, Alfred W. The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Co., 1972.

_______. Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Denevan, William, M., ed. The Native Population of the Americas in 1492. 2nd ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1992.

Díaz del Castillo, Bernal. Historia Verdadera de la Conquista de la Nueva España. Translated by A. P. Maudslay [The Discovery and Conquest of Mexico, 1517-1521]. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Cudahy, 1956. Reprint with new introduction by Hugh Thomas, Da Capo Press, 1996.

Kiple, Kenneth F. The Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

_______. The Cambridge World History of Human Disease. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

McNeill, William H. Plagues and Peoples. Garden City, New York: Anchor Press, 1976.

Melville, Elinor G. K. A Plague of Sheep: Environmental Consequences of the Conquest of Mexico. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Mintz, Sidney W. Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History. New York: Viking, 1985.

Salaman, Redcliffe N. The History and Social Influence of the Potato. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Solbrig, Otto T., and Dorothy J. Solbrig. So Shall You Reap: Farming and Crops in Human Affairs. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1994.

Thornton, Russel. American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History since 1492. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987.

Verano, John W., and Douglas H. Ubelaker, eds. Disease and Demography in the Americas. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992.

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