Native Americans and the Land
Wilderness and American Identity
The Use of the Land
Native Americans and the Land Essays
Nature Transformed is made possible by grants from the Arthur Vining Davis Foundations.
Bill Reid (Haida artist, 1920–1998), The Raven and the First Men, 1978–1980, wood sculpture depicting the origin myth of the Haida tribe (Queen Charlotte Islands, off British Columbia, Canada); yellow cedar, 188.75 cm length x 192.6 cm diameter
SLIDESHOW: Pleistocene Age mammals (6 images)
IMAGE 1: Glyptodon. Artist’s impression of Glyptodon (meaning “carved tooth”), an ancient armadillo found in Argentina during the Pleistocene
IMAGE 2: Giant paleo bison. Artist’s impression of Bison latifrons, a giant bison found in the southeastern United States during the Pleistocene
IMAGE 3: American mastodon. Artist’s impression of Mammut americanum, found on the American continent from Alaska to Mexico during the Pliocene (5.3 to 1.8 mya [million years ago]) and Pleistocene (1.8 mya to 10,000 years ago)
IMAGE 4: Smilodon. Artist’s impression of Smilodon (meaning “knife tooth”), sabre-toothed tiger, a Pleistocene mammal abundant in the Rancho La Brea tar pits of California, USA
IMAGE 5: Toxodon. Artist’s impression of Toxodon, a rhinoceros-like mammal found in the Pampean of Argentina during the Pleistocene
IMAGE 6: Cave bear. Artist’s impression of Ursus spelaeus, abundant during the Pleistocene (1.8 mya to 10,000 yrs), and believed to be the first animal to become extinct due to human activities
Remains of seven mammoths killed by Paleoindian Clovis hunters app. 14,000 years ago, Colby Mammoth Kill Site, north central Wyoming, ca. 1975
Archaeological site in Alberta, Canada, dated to 11,000–13,000 B.P. (before present), with bones of an extinct horse that reveal marks of human butchering, 2001; in “Spearhead discovery puts horse on prehistoric menu,” 2 May 2001
LEFT PHOTO: Paul McNeil, a University of Calgary geology Ph.D. student, points out the remains of a mammoth footprint. In the background, on the left, fourth year Univ. of Calgary archaeology student Alan Youell and archaeologist Dr. Brian Kooyman.
RIGHT PHOTO: Dr. Len Hills, professor emeritus and paleontologist with the University of Calgary, holds the skull of an 11,300-year-old horse, found by University of Calgary researchers at St. Mary Reservoir in southern Alberta. The white material encasing the specimen is burlap and paper towelling soaked in plaster of Paris, which provides protection in handling and transport.
Clovis fluted spear points, ca. 11,600 B.P., found in association with Columbian mammoth remains at the Lehner and Naco kill sites in the Upper San Pedro River Valley, Cochise County, Arizona; materials—andesite, chert, quartz, quartzite, rhyolite
Preserved spruce forest discovered buried in sand in northern Michigan, 10,000 years after late-Pleistocene warming caused spruce forests in the region to be replaced with pine forests; core samples taken to study tree-ring data; 1999
SLIDESHOW: Ocean Drilling Project (3 images)
Ocean drilling project, 2003, which provided evidence to support the hypothesis that a massive release of methane from the ocean 55 million years ago caused extreme global warming and the extinction of many plankton organisms
IMAGE 1: Ship. JOIDES Resolution was converted in Pascagoula, Mississippi, in the fall of 1984. She was built in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1978 and had previously sailed the world as a top-class oil-exploration vessel.
IMAGE 2: Reentry cone: Reentry cones are used to reenter an existing hole and are positioned using either sonar or an underwater television system.
IMAGE 3: Core sampling. Core sectioning and capping: on the Core Deck.
Pelvic and leg bones of a moa (Dinornis) held by paleontologists Jim Eyles, Roger Duff, and Ron Scarlett, Pyramid Valley, New Zealand, March 1949 (detail of photograph)
Skeleton and egg of an extinct elephant bird, Madagascar, 1913. From DigiMorph: The adult skeleton of Aepyornis is well described (Monnier, 1913; Wiman, 1935; Andrews, 1894; 1896; Lowe, 1930) and represents that of a very stout, robust bird, much more robust than that of the ostrich or even the moas. Aepyornis is most likely suited to stomping through dense forests rather than the cursorial lifestyle of the ostrich. The bones of Aepyornis commonly are found in peat deposits along the coast of Madagascar, occasionally in conjunction with hippopotamus bones (Wiman, 1935).
Three-foot mammoth tusk discovered on Wrangel Island off the coast of Siberia (the last known site of mammoth habitation), during a 1998 research expedition to pursue a new hypothesis of the Pleistocene extinctions
Cover, Seattle Weekly, 2 July 1998
SLIDESHOW: Controversies pertaining to the New World prior to the arrival of Europeans (8 images)
IMAGE 1: Rock painting, ca. 15,000 B.P., Brazil
IMAGE 2: Excavation of oldest human remains discovered in North America, Tatshenshini-Alsek Park, British Columbia, August 1999; Kwaday Dän Sinchi remains dated to ca. A.D. 1500 (detail of photograph)
IMAGE 3: Flaked spearpoint of the Clovis paleoindian culture, Virginia
IMAGE 4: Excavation of earliest known paleoindian "buffalo jump" site, ca. 12,000 B.P., Bonfire Shelter, Texas
IMAGE 5: Clay model based on skull of 10,600-year-old mummy, Nevada
IMAGE 6: Bones of Kennewick Man.
IMAGE 7: Giant ground sloth (artist’s impression of Paramylodon), found in Patagonia, Argentina, during the Pleistocene era
IMAGE 8: Coprolite (fossil dung) from an early mammal, 3¾ in., 45 million years old, Eocene, Cowlitz Formation, Washington
SLIDESHOW: Environmental Reports (5 images)
IMAGE 1: Cover, Humans and Other Catastrophes: Perspectives on Extinction, Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, American Museum of Natural History, 1999
IMAGE 2: Cover, Global Environment Outlook 3, United Nations Environment Programme, 2003
IMAGE 3: Cover, China’s Biodiversity: A Country Study, Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1998
IMAGE 4: Cover, Feeling the Heat in Florida: Global Warming on the Local Level, 2001
IMAGE 5: Cover, Flirting with Disaster, U.S. Public Interest Research Group Education Fund, 2001
Depressions in bed of Paluxy River, Glen Rose, Texas, 1996
Dr. Carl Baugh, director of the Creation Evidence Museum, studying a depression in the bed of the Paluxy River, Glen Rose, Texas
Home page, Humans and Other Catastrophes, online exhibition, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY
Tribal seal of the Weymontachie Band, Atikamekw Nation, Québec, Canada
Tribal seal of the Sac and Fox Nation, Oklahoma
Tribal seal of the Elwha Klallam Tribe, Washington
Tribal seal of the Coushatta Tribe, Louisiana