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17th & 18th Centuries

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17th & 18th Century Essays

Divining America is made possible by grants from the Lilly Endowment and the National Endowment for the Humanities.


Divining America Advisors and Staff

The Separation of Church and State from the American Revolution to the Early Republic

Illustration Credits

James Madison portrait, 1835. Painted by Asher Brown Durand after original by Gilbert Stuart. Oil on canvas. Gift of P. Kemble Paulding. Inventory # 1870.1
Repository: Collection of The New-York Historical Society

Thomas Jefferson portrait, 1786. Painted by Mather Brown. Bequest of Charles Francis Adams; Frame conserved with funds from the Smithsonian Women's Committee.
Ref. # NPG.99.66
Repository: National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution

Citizens’ “Memorial and Remonstrance” to Virginia, July 28, 1785. James Madison.
Digital ID: mjm 02_0449_0450
Repository: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division. The James Madison Papers

Thomas Jefferson’s Handwritten draft of the letter to Danbury Baptists.
Repository: Library of Congress, Exhibit: Religion and the Founding of the American Republic


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